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- ItemOut for the count: some methodological questions in 'publications counting' literature(Elsevier, 2001-09) Losekoot, E; Verginis, CS; Wood, RCComments on the use of 'publications counting', i.e. the number of items published by academics and their institutions, in making financial and tenure decisions, and criticizes the methods used in terms of the choice and relative status of the journals included in such counts, the timeframe for analysis relative to journal selection, and the arithmetic procedures employed, offering named examples from the field of hospitality and tourism. Contends that a fairer and more worthwhile benchmarking process is necessary, taking the example of the UK's research assessment exercise and advocating a more holistic approach than that currently pursued.
- ItemThe value of an explicit pronunciation syllabus in ESOL teaching(AMEP Research Centre, Macquarie University, 2003) Couper, GraemeThis article reports on an action research project which investigated the value of systematically and explicitly incorporating a pronunciation sub-syllabus within the overall syllabus of a full-time post-intermediate level ESOL course. This pronunciation syllabus involved raising each individual learner’s awareness of their difficulties with pronunciation and of the main features of spoken English in general. IIt then attempted to systematically and explicitly instruct learners in theses features, at both the segmental and suprasegmental levels, and to encourage learners to practise and monitor their pronunciation. The effectiveness of the syllabus was examined through pre- and post-course tests of pronunciation and through a survey of students' reactions to the syllabus and their beliefs regarding the teaching and learning of pronunciation. The results showed that clear gains were made, and that learners believed both that teachers should teach pronunciation, and that the particular approach taken here had been of value.
- ItemEthics in commercial hospitality(University of Queensland, 2004) Poulston, JMAnecdotally, hospitality has a reputation for poor ethical standards, and it is anticipated that this research will provide a basis for that reputation. Several themes are being explored, such as the causes of poor ethical standards in hospitality, and in particular, management’s role in encouraging and preserving these standards. Unethical behaviour in hospitality is investigated, in order to measure tolerance according to different demographic attributes. It is hypothesised that hospitality managers both passively and actively support unethical behaviour, by providing inadequate financial, physical and human resources to meet profit targets by ethical means. Managers may be aware of unacceptable behaviour, but do not take preventative action, perhaps because the behaviour helps them meet short term goals. Preliminary research included a review of literature relating to moral philosophy, business and hospitality ethics, and the origins of hospitality. Studies influencing the direction of the research are reviewed in this paper, with an outline of the research design and some preliminary results. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to improving ethical standards in hospitality workplaces by identifying the existence and scope of ethical problems, as well as their major causes. Staff and managers have conflicting views about what is fair and unfair, and by identifying these, a common understanding can be established. The ability to predict functional areas in which ethical problems will occur, as well as the kinds of incidents likely to generate unethical behaviour, is likely to help hospitality managers incorporate preventative techniques into training programmes. Furthermore, if unethical behaviour is tolerated in specific areas of hospitality, it is possible that causes of unwanted behaviour can be identified and minimised.
- ItemPedagogical options for teaching grammar(Password, 2004) Roach, K.No abstract.
- ItemAn exploratory investigation of the effects of form-focused instruction on implicit linguistic knowledge(Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand, 2004) Roach, K.; Bitchener, J.It is, arguably, implicit linguistic knowledge rather than explicit linguistic knowledge that is the goal of second language acquisition. The question arises, however, of how such knowledge can be tested (R. Ellis 2003). This article reports on an exploratory investigation of issues associated with measuring the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the acquisition of implicit linguistic knowledge in an intact pedagogical context. The study involved 19 elementary-level adult learners of English who received planned focus-on-forms instruction on the Past Simple tense and who were subsequently tested for both immediate and sustained gains. The results of the study indicate that form-focused instruction may have been effective in promoting immediate gains but that there was no sustained effect. However, such an interpretation is considerably weakened by the fact that the control group statistically outperformed the instructional group. Such a result may be indicative of the aim to preserve ‘ecological validity’ (van Lier 1988) at the expense of rigorously controlling extraneous variables when conducting research of a quasi-experimental nature. The study, however, raises a number of issues that future researchers should take into account when designing further investigations of implicit linguistic knowledge.
- ItemSacking, staffing and supervision in commercial hospitality(Sociological Association of Aotearoa N.Z. (SAANZ), 2004-11-26) Poulston, JAnecdotally, hospitality has a reputation for poor ethical standards, and preliminary results from this doctoral study indicate such a reputation is well founded. However, the expected crimes of sexual harassment, theft, the service of alcohol to minors, and poor food hygiene, do not appear to be the main concerns. Instead, staff complain of persistent unfair treatment by supervisors, and the struggle to provide service in an environment of poor training and critical under-staffing. This paper investigates the incidence of constructive dismissals and harsh treatment by supervisors in the Auckland hospitality industry, and the under-staffing and high turnover rates currently being experienced. Initial quantitative and qualitative analyses from 453 questionnaires are presented, in an attempt to shed light on some disturbing trends in this industry. Hospitality has a crucial role in tourism, which accounted for 14% of New Zealand’s export earnings in 2002 (Provisional Tourism Satellite Account 2000-2002, 2003). Understanding the cause and extent of unethical behaviour is a significant step towards protecting the New Zealand industry from the traditions of opportunism and moral insensitivity prevalent in the hospitality industry in some countries.
- ItemImproving the teaching of casual conversation through collaborative action research - a 'Leap in the Dark' or a 'Shot in the Arm'?(AUT University, 2005) Denny, HG; Roskvist, A.; Englefield, B.There is, in recent TESOL literature, much encouragement for teachers to undertake Action Learning and Action Research in order to improve teaching and develop research skills. But how practical and beneficial is this in a New Zealand tertiary setting where teachers of EAL have high teaching and administrative workloads and large classes? This paper describes the process of setting up a collaborative action research/learning project in which a group of teachers of adult EAL migrants focused on investigating the teaching of casual conversation in English. It surveys the literature that informed the research both on teacher research and the teaching of casual conversation in English and examines the benefits for teaching and for research skill development, the challenges, and the constraints of such an undertaking. Two members of the group outline briefly their action research into the teaching of aspects of casual conversation and describe specific strategies that helped learners in their own classroom contexts.
- ItemIslands apart: leadership studies in two island states(Taylor & Francis, 2005) Billot, JSchool leadership is situated within a context of social and political factors that work to distribute power while also holding it in check. There are connections between how societal political structures facilitate democratic participation and the operation of schools. Educational leadership straddles the interface between proactive agency and the politics of social control. This tension between holding and using authority, yet acceding to political and social practice, is one which many school leaders face. Research studies conducted in two island nations, Jersey (Channel Islands) and Tonga (Pacific Islands), in different hemispheres of the world, illustrated contrasting forms of educational service and different challenges for school principals. As island communities, the context was clearly definable and provided a set of variables that were manifested through sector processes. The principals held pivotal roles that were molded by the contextual factors which shaped the delivery of educational practice. School principals in Jersey and Tonga illustrated how leadership is complicated if the purposes leadership should serve are unclear or contested (O'Brien, Murphy, and Draper 2003).
- ItemDeveloping an English language/literacy course for adult deaf learners: insights from the chalk-face(AUT University, 2005) Roach, K.This paper offers insights into the teaching of literacy / English language to adult learners who are severely and profoundly deaf. The paper builds on an earlier study (Denny 2002), which documents the inclusion of Deaf learners in an adult migrant ESOL program at the School of Languages, Auckland University of Technology, and the subsequent establishment of a Deaf only Literacy / English language course (Roach 2002, Thompson forthcoming). The present paper draws on the on-going reflections of the course developer / classroom teacher over a period of 4 years. A number of themes are identified and these are explored in relation to (1) adult literacy (2) bilingual education (3) ESOL methodology (4) curriculum development and (5) teacher decision-making. Practical suggestions are made that may help guide others in what is essentially uncharted territory.
- ItemReflective practice and action research as a source of pre-service and in-service professional development and classroom innovation: burden or benefit? myth or reality?(AUT University, 2005) Denny, HGThe concept of the teacher as reflective practitioner and teacher as researcher of his/her own classroom practice now has a long 20th and 21st century tradition and is promoted widely in the teacher education literature of recent years. But does it have real benefits for teacher skill development and innovation in classroom practice? This paper describes the outcomes of two research projects. The first examines the effectiveness of a reflective practice exercise carried out by both pre-service and inservice English teachers at AUT. The other follows the development of a collaborative action research project in which teachers reflected on and took steps to improve the teaching of casual conversation in their own classrooms. The paper will draw conclusions about the benefits and constraints for teachers of both reflective practice and the more formal action research, examining to what extent they help teachers to develop skills and encourage innovation in the classroom. Recommendations are made for future practice to support both reflective practice and its formalisation as action research.
- ItemIndigenous Maori and Tongan perspectives on the role of Tongan language and culture in the community and in the University in Aotearoa-New Zealand(University of Nebraska Press, 2006) Kepa, TMA; Manu'atu, LNo abstract
- ItemCode-switching and language maintenance as reflected in the daily communication among Chinese in Auckland(AUT University: CNKI, 2006) Yu, STraditional study on code-switching has mainly been focusing on three aspects of this phenomenon: its social function and meaning, psycholinguistic mechanism, and grammatical constrains involved. This paper, however, investigates code-switching in relation to language shift and language maintenance. The results show that, regardless of the children’s general family background, their parents’ jobs and their English language proficiency, if the parents use English, the children’s use of English will be rapidly increased. Moreover, there is an “upgrading” in children’s language choice towards English. Combined with other analysis, this study seem to suggest that family/home is where the first language is acquired and it is also the last place to maintain their ethnic language among the young immigrants. Parental strategies employed in responding to their children play an important role.
- ItemCan busy classroom teachers really do action research: an action research study in an EAL [English as Additional Language] tertiary setting(Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand, 2006) Denny, HGRecent literature in general and language teacher education has promoted the benefits of empowering teachers to be in control of their professional development and curriculum development through reflection on practice and classroom based action research. The ‘teacher as researcher’ and ‘teacher as reflective practitioner’ movements are strongly influential in teacher education practice at present (Zeichner, 2001). Edge (2001) argues that action research augments the traditional notion of teachers as professionals who take theory and realize it in practice to include the notion of teachers as professionals who generate theory from practice. But how realistic for busy classroom teachers working in New Zealand conditions is classroom action research? Is this activity useful for such teachers and under what conditions is it possible? This paper describes an action research project carried out to investigate these questions. The participants in the study were a group of EAL classroom teachers at an Auckland tertiary institution, themselves undertaking classroom based action research into the teaching of casual conversation. Significant benefits are reported for teaching and research skill development, but there are also constraints. Recommendations are made with respect to the optimum design and resourcing of such teacher action research projects.
- ItemCritical issues in food and beverage productivity: A review(AUT University, 2006) Poulston, J; Luo, Y; Milne, S
- ItemPreparing EAL students for the interactional demands of mainstream group assessment projects(TESOLANZ, 2006) U, A.; Strauss, P.For NESB (Non English Speaking Background) students, the adjustments required to study successfully at a tertiary institution are varied and taxing (Myles & Cheng, 2003). Probably the greatest difficulty they encounter is overcoming the lack of the appropriate linguistic and cultural knowledge needed for meaningful interaction both in and outside the mainstream classroom (Myles & Cheng, 2003; Zou, 1998). In this article, we review research at our university investigating the challenges facing this cohort and their lecturers. This research indicates that many of these students have great difficulty with oral communication in English and are uneasy about interacting in groups, particularly with their ESB (English Speaking Background) peers. Obviously, this difficulty impacts negatively on their participation in group assessment projects commonly used at our university. Many NESB students find it difficult to participate in the meetings which are an essential part of group projects and often feel sidelined or belittled particularly by their ESB counterparts. We discuss possible reasons for this state of affairs and make suggestions as to how EAP (English for Academic Purposes) lecturers can prepare NESB students to become more successful in their interaction in group projects.
- Item'FetuiakiMalie, Talking Together': Pasifika in mainstream education(AUT University, 2006) Kepa, M; Manu'atu, LIn the article, the development of a new qualification in ECE Pasifika is described. The authors present an indigenous Tongan and Maori critique that challenges the consultation process and methodological content of the new qualification. The notion of FetuiakiMalie is drawn upon to debunk the mainstream notion in education that culture is static, passionless, superior and universal.
- ItemConstructive dismissals in hospitality: perceived incidence and acceptance(Department of Tourism, University of Otago, 2006) Poulston, JConstructive dismissal and ad hoc disciplinary procedures are common in hospitality and many employees feel they are treated poorly by their immediate supervisors. This study identifies the perceived incidence and acceptance of constructive dismissals in the New Zealand hospitality industry, and the characteristics of those strongly associated with constructive dismissal. Quantitative data from 534 Auckland hospitality workers are analysed as part of a wider doctoral study, and results relating to constructive dismissal presented in this paper. The study expected to reveal management ’s passive support for constructive dismissal, but instead showed managers are substantially unaware of the levels of bullying and harassment reported by staff and supervisors. High incidence levels of constructive dismissals are associated with supervisors and casual employees, and low levels with older employees, higher salaries, and managers. Responses on perceived incidence of constructive dismissals from supervisors and full-time employees implicate them as the primary cause, and casual employees as the primary victims. Constructive dismissal is strongly associated with high staff turnover, and is therefore considered a likely cause. Supervisor training and improvement of selection and induction techniques are recommended as solutions for both staff turnover and constructive dismissal.
- ItemThe benefits of training(Euro-CHRIE Congress, 2006) Poulston, JThis study assesses whether hospitality employees consider workplace training is adequate and identifies management’s view on the importance of training. Links between inadequate training and problems such as sexual harassment, unfair dismissals, under-staffing, poor food hygiene, and theft are also identified. Results indicate that hospitality employees are commonly required to work without sufficient training, and that training has a positive effect on employee relations by reducing workplace problems and improving staff retention.
- ItemMetamorphosis in hospitality: from prostitution to harassment(Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand, 2006) Poulston, JSexual harassment is significantly more common in hospitality than in other industries, and has a negative impact on both individuals and workplaces where it occurs. The New Zealand Human Rights Commission ’s 2001 report on sexual harassment found that 60% of those harassed subsequently leave their place of work, indicating a significant cause of staff turnover, and a considerable expense to employers. The objectives of this study were therefore to identify the incidence and causes of sexual harassment in hospitality, so recommendations for prevention could be made to industry practitioners. As part of a wider doctoral study, quantitative and qualitative data from 534 Auckland hospitality workers were analysed, and results relating to sexual harassment identified. Of valid responses to questions on the incidence of sexual harassment, 24% reported they had been harassed, a proportion consistent with that found in Hoel ’s 2002 British doctoral study. Customer contact was identified as a strong predictor of harassment, especially for young European women and those working in food and beverages service. Harassment was notably less prevalent where respondents had their own codes of ethics, and where training was perceived as satisfactory. High tolerance of harassment evident in written comments was associated with enjoyment and the nature of the industry, implying a sense of duty and behavioural norm extending well beyond limits accepted outside hospitality. Recommendations include the discouragement of behaviours and appearances associated with harassment by guests, such as the use of sexuality in employee – customer relationships. Training employees to reject sexual advances skilfully and professionally is also recommended, as is promoting harassment-free workplaces to both guests and staff using codes of ethics, pamphlets, or posters. However, as the root causes of sexual harassment are may be outside the reach of such prevention strategies, the discussion also addresses the implications of working in commercial hospitality. The tradition of sexual behaviour in hospitality is therefore addressed, and its relationship to the sexual favours provided in pre-Christian taverns, where barmaids were also prostitutes. The study concludes that sexual harassment is pervasive in hospitality, in part, because it is perceived as integral to the industry by both staff and customers.
- ItemTeaching writing to students from Asia: linking approach and motivation(Language Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University, 2006) U, A.; Toh, G.This article is based on a study of the motivation and perceived outcomes of students from non-English speaking backgrounds enrolled in the English for Academic Study program at the Auckland University of Technology. It discusses the implications of the findings for tutors responsible for teaching writing. The findings indicate that that the motivation and immediate needs of those students are mainly instrumental, to write assignments and projects in a university environment, while the long-term goals are to use language in the workplace. For such students, we argue that a writing program will need to cater for generic forms acceptable to academic as well as real (often business) world readership. We also argue that while introducing an element of ideological critique is important when teaching writing, it does not seem to immediately help students with actual use or application of the genres relevant in real world situations. However, when considering long-term goals, the article looks at how the work of academic literacies thinkers can help alert students to power and ideological aspects of writing. The discussion in this article could also be generalized for the teaching of writing in ESL and EFL contexts.