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- ItemA conceptual model of the management of creativity and innovation in airports(Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), 2013-02) Losekoot, E; Wright, NThis paper takes the top ten airports identified in the SKYTRAX 2011 airport awards and investigates to what extent their success might be due to creative and innovative management actions. The literature review considers factors such as historical development, geographical location, ownership structure and role of the airport. It uses publicly available qualitative and quantitative data to identify factors that may have contributed to their success and presents a conceptual model. This research demonstrates there is evidence for each of the factors proposed in the model. However in this exploratory study there was little uniformity in terms of the relative success in the awards. The paper recommends that further empirical research is carried out to test the strength and direction of relationships between factors.
- ItemA Framework for Mapping and Monitoring Human-Ocean Interactions in Near Real-Time During COVID-19 and Beyond(Elsevier BV, 2022-04-16) Ward-Paige, CA; White, ER; Madin, EMP; Osgood, GJ; Bailes, LK; Bateman, RL; Belonje, E; Burns, KV; Cullain, N; Darbyshire-Jenkins, P; de Waegh, RS; Eger, AM; Fola-Matthews, L; Ford, BM; Gonson, C; Honeyman, CJ; House, JE; Jacobs, E; Jordan, LK; Levenson, JJ; Lucchini, K; Martí-Puig, MPP; McGuire, LAH; Meneses, C; Montoya-Maya, PH; Noonan, RA; Ruiz-Ruiz, PA; Ruy, PE; Saputra, RA; Shedrawi, G; Sing, B; Tietbohl, MD; Twomey, A; Florez, DV; Yamb, LThe human response to the COVID-19 pandemic set in motion an unprecedented shift in human activity with unknown long-term effects. The impacts in marine systems are expected to be highly dynamic at local and global scales. However, in comparison to terrestrial ecosystems, we are not well-prepared to document these changes in marine and coastal environments. The problems are two-fold: 1) manual and siloed data collection and processing, and 2) reliance on marine professionals for observation and analysis. These problems are relevant beyond the pandemic and are a barrier to understanding rapidly evolving blue economies, the impacts of climate change, and the many other changes our modern-day oceans are undergoing. The “Our Ocean in COVID-19″ project, which aims to track human-ocean interactions throughout the pandemic, uses the new eOceans platform (eOceans.app) to overcome these barriers. Working at local scales, a global network of ocean scientists and citizen scientists are collaborating to monitor the ocean in near real-time. The purpose of this paper is to bring this project to the attention of the marine conservation community, researchers, and the public wanting to track changes in their area. As our team continues to grow, this project will provide important baselines and temporal patterns for ocean conservation, policy, and innovation as society transitions towards a new normal. It may also provide a proof-of-concept for real-time, collaborative ocean monitoring that breaks down silos between academia, government, and at-sea stakeholders to create a stronger and more democratic blue economy with communities more resilient to ocean and global change.
- Item“A labour of love”: Active Lifestyle Entrepreneurship (Occupational Devotion) During a Time of COVID-19(Frontiers Media SA, 2021-04-22) Wright, Richard Keith; Wiersma, Cindy; Ajiee, Richard OparaThe Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis management strategies adopted by world leaders across the globe in 2020 impacted the work-life balance of billions of people. Entire populations were forced to stay at home and maintain a safe distance from family members, friends, colleagues, and customers. Occupational devotion is defined as a feeling of strong, positive attachment to a form of self-enhancing employment, where achievement and fulfillment are high, and the core activity has such intense appeal that the line between this work and leisure is virtually erased. Although it is not a new concept, this area of the serious leisure perspective has been largely overlooked by scholars observing the world of sport events and entrepreneurship. Using Creative Analytical Practice (CAP), a post-qualitative methodology, we present the personal narrative of a New Zealand-based active lifestyle entrepreneur who, as a result of a nationwide COVID19 lockdown, was forced to re-assess his long-established occupational devotion. Our co-constructed story offers an emotive insight into the personal cost and consequences of finding yourself living in a lockdown.
- ItemA Review of Research into Tourism Work and Employment: Launching the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on Tourism Work and Employment(Elsevier BV, 2023-05) Ladkin, Adele; Mooney, Shelagh; Solnet, David; Baum, Tom; Robinson, Richard; Yan, Hongmin
- ItemA Seat at the Table: Can the Hospitality Industry Work Together to Find a Sustainable Way Forward(The School of Hospitality & Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, 2023-04-25) Richardson, RobAotearoa's post-COVID19 hopitality industry is in a sate of flux. COVID19 has seen the industry tipped upside down and this disruption has highlight structuial issues that lay below the surface. To build toward a sustainable, more rewarding future the industry needs to come together, reflect, communicate and plan. But does the industry have the ability or desire to do so?
- ItemAbove and Beyond: A Grounded Theory of Aotearoa/New Zealand High School Teachers’ Perspectives on International Study Tours(Springer, 2023-05-19) O'Donnell, Donna; Orams, Mark; Schanzel, HeikeThis paper addresses the dearth of research into the roles high school teachers play in organising and leading international study tours offered by high schools in New Zealand (prior to the COVID-19 pandemic). The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the motivations and experiences of teachers involved in these tours. A grounded theory approach was used, and qualitative data were collected via face-to-face interviews with eight teachers forming the basis of the development of a theory which proposes that both navigating and negotiating learning experiences are key aspects of the teacher’s role. Data revealed that the expectations and challenges placed upon the teachers had implications for their personal and professional lives. The tension between teachers’ perceived obligations for the safety of the students and the adolescent’s desire for freedom to explore whilst travelling proved difficult to resolve and teachers questioned the sacrifices they personally needed to make.
- ItemAccessibility Information on the Websites of New Zealand Luxury Lodges(The School of Hospitality & Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, 2023-04-25) Gillovic, Brielle; Harkison, TracyThis article reports on a wider study determining the provision of accessibility information by New Zealand Luxury Lodges. It presents important insights about the importance and role of the website provision of accessibility information for potential guests with disabilities, and the implications of this for accommodation providers.
- ItemAccommodating Travellers With Pets: Is Auckland Ready?(School of Hospitality & Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, 2019-06-14) Chen, Y; Schanzel, HNew Zealand is considered a nation of pet lovers, with 64 percent of households owning at least one pet . The aim of this study  was to explore what the main considerations were for hospitality operators in Auckland with regards to offering pet-friendly services. To answer this question, several key aspects were considered: pet tourism trends; market expansion of pet-friendly accommodations; the profitability of allowing pets; and operational implications, such as additional investment and labour costs. This explorative research interviewed ten accommodation providers in Auckland: five pet-friendly and five non-pet-friendly. These operators represented owners or managers of hotels, motels, lodges and apartments spread across Auckland and Waiheke Island. Research on operators’ perspectives on pet tourism is unexplored, with previous literature focusing on tourists’ perceptions [3–5]. This study hopes to provide practical implications for the industry, especially for the New Zealand context. New Zealand’s pet tourism market is considered small and mainly domestic. According to popular global dog travel directory Bring Fido , in 2017 there were a mere fifteen pet-friendly accommodations in Auckland, in stark contrast to other cities such as New York (367), London (96) and Paris (643). Interviewees’ opinions on the profitability of accommodating pet tourists varied. Non-pet operators rejected the idea of allowing pets due to an abundance of non-pet customers and were reluctant to accept perceived pet-related risks. Their pre-conceptions were likely formed by operating in silos without conducting any research on pet tourism and its market landscape. There was a genuine fear of negative online reviews which cannot be easily amended and can have significant longevity. Their key perceived risks were related to hygiene and allergy concerns for other customers. Preventative measures were believed to involve significant investment into property renovation. Pet friendly operators, who mainly accommodated dogs, shared a different perspective through their own experiences. They expressed high trust and optimism for pet tourists and had rarely experienced any major pet-related incidents. From a hygiene and allergy point of view, the risks were considered minimal and customers bore the responsibility when stating their allergies. Pet-friendly operators stated that no additional workload or costs were incurred through accommodating pets. Significant renovations were not deemed necessary, instead relying on what they already had. However, in the unlikely event of a major pet-related incident, the interviewees expressed that their trust towards accommodating pets would waver, meaning their tolerance of risk was not resilient. At the time of the research, pet-friendly operators were relaxed about pet policies and had not formalised them. The majority were conveying rules to pet tourists through word of mouth, such as that pets must be on a leash in public areas, instead of through written and signed agreements. Tellingly, pet-friendly operators did not perceive New Zealand’s pet tourism market as lucrative. They were allowing pets as an extension of service and lacked motivation to expand or to cater for more pets. The study highlights the potential for growth in the domestic pet tourism market despite the current stalemate, where those who allowed pets were supportive and vice versa. Improving this situation might require unified pet-friendly associations and certain levels of government intervention. In parallel, all operators should break out of silos and socialise more with their pet-friendly peers to gain knowledge and validate assumptions. Pet-friendly operators could improve engagement with pet tourists through standardised policies and formal agreements. With guidance and support from their peers, more accommodations may be capable of handling pets. Pet owners could look forward to a day when travelling with pets becomes much more accessible due to abundant pet-friendly accommodation.
- ItemAdvancing a Social Justice-Orientated Agenda Through Research: A Review of Refugee-Related Research in Tourism(Taylor and Francis Group, 2023-04-13) Bazrafshan, S; McIntosh, Alison Jane; Cockburn-Wootten, CScholars have called for more critical considerations of social justice and tourism that align with the tenets, values, and practices for sustainability, transformation, and social change. The aim of this research was to map and critically assess the status of refugee-related research in tourism, particularly with regards to the extent to which it adopts, or extends, a social justice-oriented agenda. A systematic literature review of existing studies was conducted. Content analysis assessed three aspects of 37 studies, namely, (1) the topics covered, (2) the extent to which the research aligns with social justice research practices, and (3) the extent to which the research furthers the social justice agenda for transformation. The review revealed a body of work that does not demonstrate social justice research practices; mostly because the refugee-related research topics of focus do not exhibit a social justice-oriented agenda. Our review illustrated that existing tourism research tends to frame refugees negatively and as a threat to destinations, and neglect critical considerations of epistemologies, reflexivity, and research processes. We conclude by highlighting alternative approaches that could contribute to a social justice-oriented agenda, using tourism as a bridge for creating change within structures, discourses, and practices in refugee-related research.
- ItemAdvancing Critico-Relational Inquiry: Is Tourism Studies Ready for a Relational Turn?(Taylor and Francis Group, 2023-05-10) Pernecky, TomasThis paper advances relational thought in tourism studies as a means for facilitating greater scrutiny of the relational matrices that have rendered possible the continuity of unjust, oppressive, and discriminatory relational patterns, particularly when these become detrimental to individuals, communities, other species, and the environment. Amid the growing determination to build more ethical, just, and sustainable futures, it contemplates whether critical scholarship has arrived at a relational turning point, whereby certain manifestations of tourism are increasingly deemed undesirable and problematic, and that transformation is needed in areas such as unsustainable growth, persistent colonial domination and racial conditioning, continued disregard for the environment, ongoing gender inequality and gender violence, and enduring injustices. The paper explains how relationality is interconnected with sustainability and critical scholarship and outlines the premise of critico-relational inquiry in the field. New conceptual vocabulary is offered to emphasise the critical vitality that can be injected into the examination of relations including: relational programming, relational reprogramming, relational hacking, meta-relational concerns, and relational thriving. Critico-relational inquiry is delineated as a viable strategy for transitioning towards sustainable alternatives, and as an integral part of future sustainability cum critical studies.
- ItemAirports: places or non-places - who cares?(Council for Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), 2015-04-15) Losekoot, EThere is considerable literature on the concept of placelessness (Relph, 1976) and ‘nonplace’ (Augé, 1995). Much of this comes from the geography literature, but the developing area of ‘mobilities’ (Sheller & Urry, 2006; Urry, 2002) opens this discussion to include those working in tourism and hospitality. Many examples (e.g. Merriman, 2004) use transport hubs such as airports, train stations and motorway service stations as research sites, yet some locations appear to have been very successful in creating an identity where there was little before (Lohmann, Albers, Koch & Pavlovich, 2009). This study gathered qualitative data from 120 airport customers of Auckland International Airport in New Zealand. The paper will consider whether those people expressed the feeling that airports are liminal spaces (Turner, 1969) which become ‘non-places’ as a result of being ‘spaces in transition’. Using Auckland Airport as a case study it considers what airport customers feel is important in terms of giving a location an identity, and what this particular airport is doing to meet those needs.
- ItemAlcohol and hospitality - Operational decisions on a marae(The Council for australasian University tourism and Hospitality education (CaUtHe), 2013-02) Losekoot, E; Sherlock, DThe issue of alcohol in hospitality has always been a controversial one. In order to address this topic in the cultural context of a marae (communal meeting place) with commercial hospitality facilities on a site regarded as tapu (sacred) and containing many taonga (treasures) this paper considers the operational implications of a decision by the kaumatua (tribal elders) not to allow alcohol to be brought onto the premises. The way in which this is communicated to guests and the impact on the management of the facility is discussed. The paper concludes with some suggestions for further research into the experience of visitors to culturally significant sites.
- ItemAn Executive Chef’s Insights into Hospitality in New Zealand: Brent Martin(School of Hospitality & Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, 2021-08-16) Harkison, Tracy; Martin, Brent2020 was one of the most challenging years to date for the New Zealand hospitality industry. As part of a wider study, a series of interviews were conducted to gain insights into what New Zealand professionals faced through this challenging time with some of their philosophical and career overviews. In this second interview, conducted in November 2020, Tracy Harkison interviewed Brent Martin, executive chef at Park Hyatt Auckland. Questions asked ranged from his passion for hospitality and dealing with COVID-19 to his hopes for the future of hospitality in New Zealand. Tracy Harkison What do you love about working in hospitality? Brent Martin The biggest thing for me is the opportunity – the opportunities that hospitality has given me. I don’t think there is another career that could have given me these opportunities to travel, to live in different cultures, meet different people, and just experience the world. You adapt a lot more and you learn a lot more about your own personality and your own way to deal with things in different cultures. I think hospitality work is a way to broaden people’s lives. Tracy Are there unique aspects to the New Zealand hospitality industry? Brent We are an international brand and hopefully this brings a wealth of knowledge back to New Zealand, which we’re starting to see – not just in hotels but restaurants who have had several really well-known chefs coming back. So the uniqueness of New Zealand is that we have a clean slate and a blank canvas on which we can create these experiences. Tracy Why start a career in hospitality? Brent There are a couple of components to this, it’s the camaraderie and it’s the family values that people have. I’ve been in the industry 30 plus years and the friends that I’ve gained along the way are my friends for life. The time that you spend working in hospitality is sometimes time spent with your best friend. People that come into hospitality really learn about that. Once those borders open, we’re going to be inundated with hundreds of thousands of people coming to New Zealand, and this is going to be very much an ongoing process in New Zealand. New Zealand is struggling for hospitality people and it’s going to open up a lot of doors for people who may have different views of what hospitality is. Tracy When starting in the industry, what advice would you give? Brent You’ve got to come into the industry with an open mind. You need to have passion and you’ve got to understand the unsociable hours. But the rewards at the end of what can happen here are amazing. The reward of seeing people eating in your restaurant, eating your food, it is amazing. When somebody comes up to you and says, “That’s the best meal I’ve ever had”, it’s instant gratification, whereas a lot of people won’t be able to get that kind of gratification from a job. Tracy What has been your greatest leadership challenge? Brent The biggest challenge for me was opening a mega-resort in the Bahamas where I had to find 400 plus cooks/staff from a population of about 200,000. So, the biggest challenge for me was to find cooks who could actually cook. To open up this mega-resort with 26 different restaurants with different cuisines and different styles, there were days I thought I’d never get there, but I ended up with over 420 staff members by the time I left the property. Tracy The COVID 19 situation – what was your decision-making process? Brent The biggest thing for us was that we never wanted to lose an employee, and that was our commitment from day one: how do we keep every employee employed in this hotel throughout this pandemic? The team really focused on watching out for each other, helping each other and knowing what the end goal was. But we had to set a standard of what this hotel was going to be; the expectations of the owner, ourselves and obviously the public was the biggest hurdle that we had to really push. We have proper practices throughout the hotel – all the staff wear face masks; that is a corporate directive from our Hyatt Corporation. Tracy How would you change the New Zealand hospitality industry? Brent I wish that we had a lot more energy to be willing to service a guest right. We talk about hospitality in New Zealand and we’re very open – you’re a family house to guests, which is amazing. It’s a refinement of what hospitality could be in New Zealand that is needed. It’s the boundaries of how my service is… how involved am I with that person at a table; at the front desk, am I too over-powering, or am I attentive enough. So it’s just refining that level of service to really understand who that customer is, and the ability to read the situation that you’re in and have three or four talking points. The most important thing is, how do we start a conversation and how do we stop a conversation with a customer; it’s the hardest thing to do, but it’s important.
- ItemAn investigation of the attitudes of travel and tourism intermediaries to mature travellers(Journal of Tourism, 2012) Schitko, D; Losekoot, EThis study considers the attitudes to and experiences of travel agents and tourism intermediaries when servicing the needs of mature travellers. It reviews the literature on mature travellers within the broader area of ‘accessible tourism’. The survey of members of a professional association within the travel industry in Auckland, New Zealand highlighted a number of key challenges and opportunities for those working in this increasingly valuable sector of the tourism industry. While this study was a pilot study of the supply side of the tourism industry in Auckland, the research concludes with examples of best practice and some recommendations drawn from the many years’ experience of the survey respondents which would form a useful starting point for a more detailed study considering the experiences of mature travellers.
- ItemAnalysing Push and Pull Motives for Volcano Tourism at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines(Springer Verlag, 2017-07-27) Aquino, R; Schanzel, H; Hyde, KThis paper investigates the motivations of visitors undertaking a volcano tour at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The study identifies push and pull motives for visiting a non-erupting active volcano; tests the influence of age, gender and prior experience of volcanic tourism on visitors; and examines differences in motivations for domestic versus international visitors. A total of 174 survey responses were collected and analysed. The results reveal four push motives, namely escape and relaxation, novelty-seeking, volcano knowledge-seeking and socialisation, and two pull motives, namely disaster and cultural heritage-induced and volcanic and geological attribute-driven. Novelty-seeking was found as the strongest motive for visiting volcanic sites. Domestic visitors display higher escape and relaxation and socialisation motives compared to international visitors. The findings provide implications for developing and marketing volcanobased geotourism and for diversifying the Philippines’ tourism products. This study makes a valuable contribution to the under-researched understanding of geotourism at volcanic sites.
- ItemAutomation of the Fast-Food Industry: Gen Z Perspectives of Self-Service Kiosks Versus Employee Service(School of Hospitality & Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, 2019-12-03) Yang, Qi; Goodsir, Warren; Poulston, JillWith the development of technology, self-service kiosks (kiosks) are increasingly being adopted by service providers such as hotels, restaurants, airports and banks [1, 2]. However, with the increasing search for more efficiency, calculability and control by replacing people with non-human technology, service quality and a sense of hospitality can be adversely impacted . Nevertheless, many seem willing to use kiosks in fast-food restaurants , suggesting that these provide considerable value for some segments of the hospitality industry. Consequently, this study  explores young people’s customer experiences of and views on using kiosks in McDonald’s restaurants. The study was carried out in Auckland, New Zealand, where interviews were conducted with 16 young people (18 to 24 years old; Gen Z)1 originating from seven countries (2 Indian, 3 Chinese, 2 Korean, 2 Vietnamese, 1 Filipino, 1 Moroccan and 5 New Zealanders). The findings suggest that kiosks provide improved customer satisfaction but can also result in reduced perceptions of hospitableness. The respondents felt that kiosks improved efficiency by eliminating the need to queue to place an order and provided more relaxed time for making their menu selections. Therefore, although using a kiosk did not necessarily speed up the service process, it allowed time for contemplation of choices and less time waiting to be served. The kiosks also provided clear food categories with pictures, simple English language instructions, and generally simple ordering and payment processes. Compared with the amount of information provided at the service counter, the kiosks provided more detailed and clearer information about menus, ingredients, discounts and promotions. Furthermore, when using kiosks, respondents felt a sense of empowerment and control over their ordering process. Kiosks provided the ability to customise meals, discuss menu choices and change orders without feeling as if they were annoying an employee or holding up other customers. This sense of empowerment and control provided relief from the pressure to place quick orders at the service counter or delay other customers. Many respondents were afraid of annoying employees or becoming an annoying customer in public. They cared about the perception of counter staff, while at the same time, they also cared about their personal image in public. The fast-paced restaurant environment and the need to be decisive with their menu selection added to the pressure and stress when purchasing takeaways. Additionally, those who spoke English as a second language faced increased stress while trying to select the right words and communicate with employees in front of others. These pressures increased their fear of public humiliation. Many respondents indicated there was no pressure when using kiosks as the kiosks offered more time and a judgment-free environment for customers. The number of kiosks available and the freedom from employee and other customer expectations had a significant impact on them by releasing them from any pressure to make a quick decision. Reduced pressure also brought enough time for discussion of food choices among friends. Using the self-order kiosk provided respondents with a judgment-free environment away from other customers and busy employees. The time-space provided by kiosks also provided respondents with a sense of safety and privacy in situations where, for example, they were upset or not confident speaking in English. Their emotions (e.g. happy, sad), skills (e.g. level of English language), appearance (e.g. lack of makeup) and eating habits (e.g. food allergy) were kept confidential in comparison to ordering in public at the counter. However, the findings also suggested that the appeal of kiosks is somewhat determined by the lack of useful and caring alternatives. This may suggest that the issue is not whether kiosks are able to do a better job than humans, but rather whether humans (service employees) are sufficiently resourced (e.g. capability and capacity) to provide both efficient and caring interactions. The original research on which this article is based is available here http://hdl.handle.net/10292/11993 Note; The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines ‘Generation Z’ as the generation of people born in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Corresponding author; Qi Yang can be contacted at: firstname.lastname@example.org References; (1) Considine, E.; Cormican, K. Self-Service Technology Adoption: An Analysis of Customer to Technology Interactions. Procedia Computer Science 2016, 100 (Suppl. C), 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.129; (2) Wei, W.; Torres, E.; Hua, N. Improving Consumer Commitment through the Integration of Self-Service Technologies: A Transcendent Consumer Experience Perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management 2016, 59 (Suppl. C), 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.09.004; (3) Ritzer, G. The McDonaldization of Society, 6th ed.; Sage/Pine Forge: Los Angeles, CA, 2011.; (4) Herne, S.; Adams, J.; Atkinson, D.; Dash, P.; Jessel, J. Technology, Learning Communities and Young People: The Future Something Project. International Journal of Art & Design Education 2013, 32 (1), 68–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2013.01738; (5) Yang, Q. Young People’s Perspectives on Self-service Technology and Hospitality: A Mcdonald’s Case Study; Master’s Thesis, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10292/11993 (accessed Nov 25, 2019).
- ItemBe prepared or she'll be right? Terrorism, hotels and mega events in New Zealand(The Council for australasian University tourism and Hospitality education (CaUtHe), 2013) Losekoot, E; Poulston, JBetween 1972 and 2003 there were 168 attempts by terrorists to attack respondents or spectators at major sporting events around the world. A literature review of over 100 research papers outlines the reasons terrorist groups target such high-profile events, one of which, is the presence of the international media. This study considers how well New Zealand hotel managers were prepared for a terrorist attack, in their preparations for the 2011 Rugby World Cup. The senior managers interviewed operated a range of properties from serviced apartments to five-star hotels. The aim of the study was to determine levels of preparedness for an attack, and assess attitudes and approaches to risk management. The study finds that New Zealand hotel managers displayed a somewhat laissez faire approach to security, and it is suggested that Hofstede’s low uncertainty avoidance category may help explain their carefree attitude to security risks during sporting mega events. It is hoped that results of this study will bring attention to the weak security measures, as these were not sufficient to prevent a successful terrorist attack in New Zealand.
- ItemBehavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations(PLOS, 2015) Meissner, AM; Christiansen, F; Martinez, E; Pawley, MD; Orams, MB; Stockin, KACommon dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management plans, in order to reduce the risk of detrimental effects on common dolphins within the region.
- Item#BiteMe: Considering the Potential Influence of Social Media on In-water Encounters with Marine Wildlife(Cognizant, LLC, 2019) Pagel, CD; Orams, MB; Lück, MOver the past three decades, interacting with wildlife as a tourism activity has grown significantly and has transformed from a relatively rare experience into a mainstream tourism product. Tourism opportunities to watch, photograph and otherwise interact with animals in their natural environment have grown to include a range of species and settings, including in the sea. Close encounters with marine wildlife are facilitated by a wide range of commercial operators, and many include and promote a strong adventure component. This paper provides a consideration of the issues of risk and the emerging role of the use of social media in marine wildlife tourism experiences. While the concept of ecotourism has been widely explored in wildlife tourism research, the inherited risk involved in these activities has received little attention. This is particularly the case regarding interactions with potentially dangerous wildlife in open-water environments. This aspect warrants exploration in the context of the growth of wildlife photography/videography and sharing via social media platforms, which frequently display close encounters with animals in dangerous scenarios for both people and wildlife involved.
- ItemBlinded by science? Reasons for thinking twice(Council for Hospitality Management Education (CHME), 2014-05-28) Poulston, JMCritical thinking is a key skill promised by many undergraduate programmes, yet few offer specific courses in thinking, nor do university lecturers necessarily think critically or know how to teach critical thinking. This preliminary paper overviews critical thinking in hospitality pedagogy, then uses the literature on fluoridation and astrology to exemplify the discrepancies between observable phenomena and the common view. Empirical data are employed to interrogate the relationship between empiricism and belief, and survey data on contentious beliefs further explore this relationship. The paper concludes that the relationship between scientific evidence and belief is somewhat arbitrary, and advice from friends and personal experience are important influences on thinking and belief. Implications for hospitality and tourism education are addressed.