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- ItemThe synthesis of hybrid mechanisms using genetic algorithms(Mechanisms & Machines Research Group, Liverpool John Moores University, 1997) Connor, AMThis thesis presents a novel design methodology for the synthesis of hybrid mechanisms using Genetic Algorithms. GAs are a search and optimisation method which model the mechanics of population genetics to give a truly global search method. In parallel to the development of a suitable GA, the work also develops novel objective function criteria which go some way to providing an approximation to dynamic criteria whilst using only kinematic properties during calculations. This has considerable effect in reducing the time required to find a feasible solution. The thesis presents a set of results which validate the proposed methodology, both in terms of speed of convergence and quality of the final solutions obtained. The application chosen is the synthesis of a hybrid five bar path generating mechanism. A description is given of the development of a practical machine for a given test case, so as to illustrate that the solutions produced are feasible in terms of real world implementation. Results are presented which show the effectiveness of the machine. Finally, a critical analysis of both the methodology and the results is carried out. This highlights some areas in which the methodology could be improved by future work.
- ItemA comparison of two methods applied to the optimisation of fluid power circuits(Research Studies Press, 1997-09-10) Connor, AM; Tilley, DGThis paper describes two optimisation methods which can be applied to the parameter selection stage of Fluid Power System design. These two methods used are a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and a Tabu Search method, both of which have been claimed to be truely global methods. GAs are a method inspired by natural selection and Darwinian evolution whilst Tabu Search is an aggressive search metaheuristic which guides local search methods towards the globally optimum solution. Results are presented for two different circuit optimisation tasks. These results show that each of the two methods have both advantages and disadvantages.
- ItemA multi-thread tabu search algorithm(MCB University Press, 1999) Connor, AMThis paper describes a novel refinement to a Tabu search algorithm that has been implemented in an attempt to improve the robustness of the search when applied to particularly complex problems. In this approach, two Tabu searches are carried out in parallel. Each search thread is characterised by it's own short term memory which forces that point out of local optima. However, the two search threads share an intermediate term memory so allowing a degree of information to be passed between them. Results are presented for both unconstrained and constrained numerical functions as well as a problem in the field of hydraulic circuit optimization. Simulation of hydraulic circuit performance is achieved by linking the optimization algorithm to the commercial simulation package Bathfp.
- ItemEfficient optimisation of structures using tabu search(MCB University Press, 1999) Connor, AM; Seffen, KA; Clarkson, PJ; Parks, GTThis paper presents a novel approach to the optimisation of structures using a Tabu search (TS) method. TS is a metaheuristic which is used to guide local search methods towards a globally optimal solution by using flexible memory cycles of differing time spans. Results are presented for the well established ten bar truss problem and compared to results published in the literature. In the first example a truss is optimised to minimise mass and the results compared to results obtained using an alternative TS implementation. In the second example, the problem has multiple objectives that are compounded into a single objective function value using game theory. In general the results demonstrate that the TS method is capable of solving structural optimisation problems at least as efficiently as other numerical optimisation approaches.
- ItemEngineering design optimisation using tabu search(Professional Engineering Publishing, 2000) Connor, AM; Clarkson, PJ; Shahpar, S; Leonard, PJThis paper describes an optimisation methodology that has been specifically developed for engineering design problems. The methodology is based on a Tabu search (TS) algorithm that has been shown to find high quality solutions with a relatively low number of objective function evaluations. Whilst the methodology was originally intended for a small range of design problems it has since been successfully applied to problems from different domains with no alteration to the underlying method. This paper describes the method and it’s application to three different problems. The first is from the field of structural design, the second relates to the design of electromagnetic pole shapes and the third involves the design of turbomachinery blades.
- ItemTriggering core emotional responses from interactive narratives(CoLab, Auckland University of Technology, 2011-11-03) Kennedy, JInteractive narrative video games are considered capable of engendering emotional responses from players. This idea extends from the presupposition that the player has a level of control over the outcome of an interactive narrative's story, and therefore develops an emotional connection to it. However, interactive narratives are unlike any other form of narrative, and cast the player as part author and part audience. To better account for this dual role, I propose the term viewer-user instead of player. The prescriptive nature of story choices in interactive narratives inhibits the viewer-user from making an emotional investment. Drawing on my acting training, I explore how emotional connections are made in narratives, and how interactive narratives need to be rethought in order to truly engage the viewer-user as a successful medium.
- ItemInertia and turbulence: television and innovation in New Zealand’s documentary production ecology(School of Culture and Communication, University of Melbourne, 2012) Jackson, AInternationally, documentary content has been a key area of innovation and experimentation for public broadcasters and public funding bodies as television moves beyond broadcast and into online and multiplatform environments. This has not been the case in New Zealand where the production of an online or convergent television documentary has had little or no support from either the primary funding body (NZ On Air) or any broadcaster. This paper examines the factors that have slowed the adoption of new platforms and technologies in television documentary in New Zealand from a critical political economy perspective, with an emphasis on the unique conditions that have shaped New Zealand’s documentary production ecology. Through analysis of opportunities for innovation and barriers to participation in an emergent global new media ecology, this paper argues that a continued lack of investment in public service media significantly inhibits the development and wellbeing of New Zealand’s documentary production ecology.
- ItemData stream mining for predicting software build outcomes using source code metrics(Elsevier, 2014-02-01) Finlay, J; Pears, R; Connor, AMContext: Software development projects involve the use of a wide range of tools to produce a software artifact. Software repositories such as source control systems have become a focus for emergent research because they are a source of rich information regarding software development projects. The mining of such repositories is becoming increasingly common with a view to gaining a deeper understanding of the development process. Objective: This paper explores the concepts of representing a software development project as a process that results in the creation of a data stream. It also describes the extraction of metrics from the Jazz repository and the application of data stream mining techniques to identify useful metrics for predicting build success or failure. Method: This research is a systematic study using the Hoeffding Tree classification method used in conjunction with the Adaptive Sliding Window (ADWIN) method for detecting concept drift by applying the Massive Online Analysis (MOA) tool. Results: The results indicate that only a relatively small number of the available measures considered have any significance for predicting the outcome of a build over time. These significant measures are identified and the implication of the results discussed, particularly the relative difficulty of being able to predict failed builds. The Hoeffding Tree approach is shown to produce a more stable and robust model than traditional data mining approaches. Conclusion: Overall prediction accuracies of 75% have been achieved through the use of the Hoeffding Tree classification method. Despite this high overall accuracy, there is greater difficulty in predicting failure than success. The emergence of a stable classification tree is limited by the lack of data but overall the approach shows promise in terms of informing software development activities in order to minimize the chance of failure.
- ItemAn extensible framework for automatic knowledge extraction from student blogs(AIRCC Publishing Corporation, 2014-06-19) Connor, AM; Martin, M; Joe, SThis article introduces a framework for automatically extracting knowledge from student blogs and injecting it into a shared resource, namely a Wiki. This is motivated by the need to preserve knowledge generated by students beyond their time of study. The framework is described in the context of the Bachelor of Creative Technologies degree at the Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand where it is being deployed alongside an existing blogging and ePortfolio process. The framework uses an extensible, layered architecture that allows for incremental development of components in the system to enhance the functionality over time. The current implementation is in beta-testing and uses simple heuristics in the core components. This article presents a road map for extending the functionality to improve the quality of knowledge extraction by introducing techniques from the artificial intelligence field.
- ItemSynthetic Minority Over-sampling TEchnique (SMOTE) for predicting software build outcomes(Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, 2014-07-01) Pears, R; Finlay, JA; Connor, AMIn this research we use a data stream approach to mining data and construct decision Tree models that predict software build outcomes in terms of software metrics that are derived from source code used in the software construction process. The rationale for using the data stream approach was to track the evolution of the prediction model over time as builds are incrementally constructed from previous versions either to remedy errors or to enhance functionality. As the volume of data available for mining from the software repository that we used was limited, we synthesized new data instances through the application of the SMOTE oversampling algorithm. The results indicate that a small number of the available metrics have significance for prediction software build outcomes. It is observed that classification accuracy steadily improves after approximately 900 instances of builds have been fed to the classifier. At the end of the data streaming process classification accuracies of 80% were achieved, though some bias arises due to the distribution of data across the two classes over time.
- ItemTowards the Holodeck: fully immersive virtual reality visualisation of scientific and engineering data(ACM, 2014-11-18) Marks, S; Estevez, JE; Connor, AMIn this paper, we describe the development and operating principles of an immersive virtual reality (VR) visualisation environment that is designed around the use of consumer VR headsets in an existing wide area motion capture suite. We present two case studies in the application areas of visualisation of scientific and engineering data. Each of these case studies utilise a different render engine, namely a custom engine for one case and a commercial game engine for the other. The advantages and appropriateness of each approach are discussed along with suggestions for future work.
- ItemAn intuitive tangible game controller(ACM, 2014-12-02) Connor, AM; Foottit, J; Brown, D; Marks, SThis paper outlines the development of a sensory feedback device providing a low cost, versatile and intuitive interface for controlling digital environments, in this example a flight simulator. Gesture based input allows for a more immersive experience, so rather than making the user feel like they are controlling an aircraft the intuitive interface allows the user to become the aircraft that is controlled by the movements of the user's hand. The movements are designed to feel intuitive and allow for a sense of immersion that would be difficult to achieve with an alternative interface. In this example the user's hand can become the aircraft much the same way that a child would imagine it.
- ItemAugmented body: changing interactive body play(ACM, 2014-12-02) Martin, M; Charlton, J; Connor, AMThis paper investigates the player’s body as a system capable of unfamiliar interactive movement through digital mediation in a playful environment. Body interactions with both digital and non-digital environments are suggested here as a perceptually manipulative exploration area, where by a player altering how they perceive of their body and its operations can create a new playful and original experience. It questions how player interaction can change as perception of the body changes using augmentative technology.
- ItemSocial play spaces for active community engagement(ACM, 2014-12-02) Gavin, J; Kenobi, B; Connor, AMThis paper puts forward the perspective that social play spaces are opportunities to utilise both technology and body for the benefit of community culture and engagement. Co-located social gaming coupled with tangible interfaces offer active participant engagement and the development of the local video game scene. This paper includes a descriptive account of Rabble Room Arcade, an experimental social event combining custom-built physical interface devices and multiplayer video games.
- ItemFull STEAM ahead: a manifesto for integrating arts pedagogics in to STEM education(Teaching, Assessment and Learning for Engineering (TALE), 2014-12-08) Connor, AM; Karmokar, S; Whittington, C; Walker, CThis paper sets out to challenge the common pedagogies found in STEM education with a particular focus on engineering. The dominant engineering pedagogy remains “chalk and talk”; despite research evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. The paper argues that there is a potential confusion in engineering education around the role of active learning approaches, and that the adoption of these approaches may be limited as a result of this confusion, combined with a degree of disciplinary egocentrism. The paper presents examples of engineering and “engineering like” projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting pedagogies and delivery methods more usually attributed to the liberal arts such as studio based learning. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how best to create a fertile environment from which inquiry based learning can emerge as well as a reflection on whether the only real limitation on cultivating such approaches is the disciplinary egocentrism of traditional engineering educators.
- ItemA Case for Creative Misunderstanding(Te Ara Poutama, AUT University, 2015) Mazer, SThe differences between us necessitate the dialogue, rather than disallow it – a dialogue must take place, precisely because we don’t speak the same language. (Ahmed, 2000, p. 180, italics in the original) Human ways of life increasingly influence, dominate, parody, translate, and subvert one another. (Clifford, 1986, p. 22) I begin with an admission: I’m not Māori, not indigenous in any place or in any way that would allow me to speak and write with such authority. Nor, for that matter, am I a dancer. I’m an American theatre-trained, performance ethnographer. As a performance ethnographer, everywhere I go, everywhere I look, I see performances, and while I may not understand the language or conventions of the performances I see, even so I tell the story of my seeing performances to others.
- ItemAdd to shopping basket(DARC (Digital Aesthetics Research Centre), Aarhus University, School of Communication and Culture, 2015) Charlton, JNo abstract.
- ItemBut Can It Be Art? Kapa Haka As a Contemporary Indigenous Performance Practice(Te Ara Poutama, AUT University, 2015) Mazer, S; Papesch, T RThis talk represents the latest stage in our ongoing conversation. As with our previously performed public dialogues such as ‘Crossing the Cultural Divide’ in 2001and ‘Stages of Pōwhiri’ in 2008, we’re staking positions that are to some degree more contrary than we might hold in private (see Papesch and Mazer 2001 & 2010). We do this for the sake of argument, to have a bit of a play with thinking out loud in ways that you may, or may not, find acceptable, and as such perhaps to spark controversy, because we believe that conscious contentiousness can be cheerful and also genuinely productive of new ideas about the relationship between culture and performance.
- ItemChallenges in virtual reality exergame design(Australian Computer Society, Inc. (ACS), 2015-01-30) Shaw, Lindsay Alexander; Wünsche, Burkhard Claus; Lutteroth, Christof; Marks, S; Callies, RodolpheExercise video games have become increasingly popular due to their potential as tools to increase user motivation to exercise. In recent years we have seen an emergence of consumer level interface devices suitable for use in gaming. While past research has indicated that immersion is a factor in exergame effectiveness, there has been little research investigating the use of immersive interface technologies such as head mounted displays for use in exergames. In this paper we identify and discuss five major design challenges associated with the use of immersive technologies in exergaming: motion sickness caused by sensory disconnect when using a head mounted display, reliable bodily motion tracking controls, the health and safety concerns of exercising when using immersive technologies, the selection of an appropriate player perspective, and physical feedback latency. We demonstrate a prototype exergame utilising several affordable immersive gaming devices as a case study in overcoming these challenges. The results of a user study we conducted found that our prototype game was largely successful in overcoming these challenges, although further work would lead to improvement and we were able to identify further issues associated with the use of a head mounted display during exercise.
- ItemDevelopment and evaluation of an exercycle game using immersive technologies(Australian Computer Society, Inc. (ACS), 2015-01-30) Shaw, Lindsay Alexander; Wünsche, Burkhard Claus; Lutteroth, Christof; Marks, S; Buckley, Jude; Corballis, PaulExercise video games have become increasing popular due to their promise to increase fitness and reduce obesity levels, and due to the emergence of cheap interface devices. Previous research reported mixed results about the effectiveness of such games. Common problems are the lack of long term motivation of users, games not taking into account specific patient requirements, repetitive gameplay, and vendor lock-in. In this paper we design a novel exergame which addresses some of these shortcomings. The game employs an infinite randomly generated game environment, uses immersive technologies, and can be customized to take into account patient requirements. We present a prototype of this game design and evaluate its effectiveness using different levels of immersion. Our user study demonstrates a small but statistically significant increase in exercise performance and motivation when using the exergame. Employing the Oculus Rift resulted in a slightly higher motivation, but no noticeable change in performance. The head mounted display was most effective for sedentary users.