Ecosystem Integrity of Active Sand Dunes: A Case Study to Implement and Test the SEEA-EA Global Standard, From Aotearoa New Zealand
Biodiversity and ecosystem functions are deteriorating worldwide, and there is an urgent need to reverse these declines and set ecosystems on a path to recovery. Effective monitoring, including a fit for purpose indicator framework, is essential to track progress towards targets but, as yet there is no universal framework that delivers timely data on biodiversity and ecosystem change. Ecosystem integrity is a unifying concept that refers to the capacity of an ecosystem to be resilient to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, and to maintain characteristic species composition, structure, functioning and self-organisation over time within a natural range of variability. Using a case study which can be generalised to international contexts, we implement and test a new global standard for the assessment, monitoring and ranking of ecosystem integrity of active sand dunes in Aotearoa New Zealand.