Post-settlement Governance Entities, at the Interface of Indigenous Development in New Zealand
This paper presents two cases of tribal development based on Treaty of Waitangi settlements between Māori tribes and government in New Zealand. Breaches of the Treaty, resulting from government actions or inactions since 1840, have seen the diminution of tribal economies and well-being. The Waitangi Tribunal, created in 1975 to address these grievances, is the vehicle through which tribes have negotiated and settled Treaty claims to springboard economic, social and cultural development. Two such tribes are Ngāti Tapuika and Ngātikahu ki Whangaroa. The authors of this paper are both Māori scholars and Treaty negotiators for their tribes. Here they outline the histories of their tribes, grievances, settlement and beyond, through the organisations (Post-Settlement Governance Entities) that operate at the interface between the tribe, the government and the wider world. These organisations are also the interface between a history of conflict, despoliation, and destitution on the one hand, and aspirations for an empowered and enriched future on the other.