- ItemState Dependence in Immunization and the Role of Discouragement(Elsevier, 2023-11-07) Plum, Alexander; Pacheco, Gail; Dasgupta, KabirWe investigate whether having a child immunized at a prior schedule genuinely increases the likelihood of vaccinating the child at the subsequent schedule. We use longitudinal data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study and apply a dynamic random-effects model that also controls for the initial immunization status. Prior to any covariate-adjusted estimations, our data shows that almost 96% of the children immunized at the previous schedule are also immunized at the subsequent schedule. In comparison, only 29% of children who were not immunized at the prior schedule receive immunization at the next milestone, thereby indicating an unadjusted state dependence in immunization of 67 percentage points (p.p.). Upon controlling for relevant covariates and unobserved heterogeneities, the genuine state dependence in immunization is, on average, estimated to be 20 p.p. Importantly, the magnitude of the state dependence is greater for Māori (by 5 p.p.) and also greater for mothers that report being discouraged from having their child immunized during the antenatal period (by 10 p.p.).
- ItemPeering Through the Lens of High-Reliability Theory: A Competencies Driven Security Culture Model of High-Reliability Organisations(Wiley, 2023-05-17) Hassandoust, Farkhondeh; Johnston, Allen CTo improve organisational safety and enhance security efficiency, organisations seek to establish a culture of security that provides a foundation for how employees should approach security. There are several frameworks and models that provide a set of requirements for forming security cultures; however, for many organisations, the requirements of the frameworks are difficult to meet, if not impossible. In this research, we take a different perspective and focus on the core underlying competencies that high-reliability organisations (HROs) have shown to be effective in achieving levels of risk tolerance consistent with the goals of a security culture. In doing so we draw on high-reliability theory to develop a Security Culture Model that explains how a firm's supportive and practical competencies form its organisational security culture. To refine and test the model, we conducted a developmental mixed-method study using interviews and survey data with professional managers involved in the information security (InfoSec) programs within their respective HROs. Our findings emphasise the importance of an organisation's supportive and practical competencies for developing a culture of security. Our results suggest that organisations' security cultures are a product of their InfoSec practices and that organisational mindfulness, top management involvement and organisational structure are key to the development of those practices.
- ItemEconomic Policy Uncertainty and Fund Flow Performance Sensitivity: Evidence from New Zealand(Wiley, 2023-01-29) Ali, Sara; Badshah, Ihsan; Demirer, Riza; Hegde, PrasadUtilizing a large sample of actively managed equity funds and a recently developed EPU index for New Zealand, we show that fund flow performance sensitivity decreases with policy uncertainty. The role of policy uncertainty as a determinant of fund flow performance sensitivity is found to be stronger, particularly for funds with global focus, large sized funds, high momentum funds and those with high idiosyncratic volatility and low downside risk. The findings support the argument that high policy uncertainty dampens investors' ability to process information that allows them to distinguish fund manager skill from luck. The results remain strong after accounting for various macroeconomic factors.
- ItemAn Empirical Investigation into UK University - Industry Collaboration: The Development of an Impact Framework(Springer, 2023-11-12) Bamford, David; Reid, Iain; Forrester, Paul; Dehe, Benjamin; Bamford, Jim; Papalexi, MarinaProviding evidence of the impact of university–industry (U–I) partnerships is challenging. This empirical research contributes to this thought-provoking subject area by developing an impact assessment framework to assess the effect of collaboration between university and industry. This is examined through a multiple case study approach: 13 partnership schemes, each of two years duration, in manufacturing and healthcare. This study demonstrates that effective knowledge transfer from universities to enterprises is not only hypothetically feasible, but also realistically tangible and measurable. It explores how Business and Management Schools transfer knowledge and technology through external interventions and formal partnership schemes. Our findings show that impact and knowledge transfer can be evaluated, but requires active facilitation before, during and after the project, plus a level of openness and expert engagement within the partnerships. Additionally, our findings established that healthcare partnerships generated higher perceived levels of impact than manufacturing. This perhaps indicates that further work is necessary to resolve the issues limiting the productivity gains of manufacturing partnerships.
- ItemCutting GST on Fresh Produce Won’t Help Those Most in Need - A Targeted Approach Works Better(The Conversation, 2023-06-15) Gupta, Ranjana