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- Item10 Bowen St.(Auckland University of Technology, 2008) Leitch, FranThis project is a site specific based exploration into the boundaries between the domestic home and the navigation of the anxious corporeal body which dwells in the space. These connections open up ways of mapping anxiety brought on through intrusive thoughts surrounding contamination (in relation to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder). The corporal navigation of the domestic is fuelled by the thoughts and their control over the notions of fear and anxiety surrounding the transferring of contaminated material from the external temporal world (dust and organic matter) into the internal sterile environment through movement or fissures in the fabric of the dwelling. The project explores the notions of the domestic space being formed into a container for the intrusive thoughts through physical acts of decontaminating, containment, sealing and expelling the elements of dirt; the body and the home become a hybrid entity alluding to the extreme control which forms and takes over the domestic space.
- Item1000 Lovers: exegesis and screenplay(Auckland University of Technology, 2011) Sprague, BronwynA multi-protagonist family drama set in Auckland in 1987. Auckland is an ebullient city on the threshold of great change. Daniel, a golden youth born with a silver spoon has all he needs and everything in front of him but he just can't seem to grow up. The daily round of pleasure and diversion no longer mask the unpleasant realities of life and death. Everyone around him wants something he is not able to give; his best friend Ash wants his money, his mother wants her boy at home and his girlfriend Caroline wants all of him. Ava is a young woman off to see the world and who is prepared to bend a few rules to get there. Still raging at her parents’ divorce, fearful of being hurt again, she hides her feelings from herself and others and is not the easiest girl to know. When Daniel’s and Ava’s paths cross there are consequences for both of them and Daniel may finally have to wake up.
- ItemThe 2000 Speight coup in Fiji: an analysis of the role of The Fiji Times and the impact of partisan media(Auckland University of Technology, 2011) Singh, Thakur RanjitIn May 1999, Mahendra Pal Chaudhry was sworn in as the first Indo-Fijian Prime Minister of Fiji. A year later, an unruly protest march opposing his leadership climaxed in a renegade soldier-led attempted coup. The rebel Counter-Revolutionary Warfare soldiers led by a failed businessman, George Speight, took the elected Fiji government hostage. As was the case with the original coup d’état in May 1987, the Labour-led Indo–Fijian dominated coalition government’s term in office was cut short by Speight and his ethno-nationalist forces. The May 2000 attempted coup, the dissolution of Chaudhry government and the lack of popular uprising to support democracy have been partially attributed to an alleged irresponsible journalism which put considerable pressure on the fledgling first Indo-Fijian-led government. Claims have been made that the media, particularly The Fiji Times, played a critical role in this event through the way it portrayed Chaudhry and his government. Such reporting has been challenged as having contributed to racial animosity, leading to political disorder. This research, conducted through content analysis between May 1999 and May 2000 along with an examination of documents and the coup literature, seeks to explore any role The Fiji Times may have played leading to political instability, culminating in the putsch, seizure of the Parliament and eventual imprisonment of George Speight after his death sentence for treason was commuted to life in jail. The thesis discusses the performance of The Fiji Times in the context of a range of media theories and models in a developing nation and examines possible contributory factors in the fall of democracy and the one-year rule of the Chaudhry government. The author of this thesis also draws on his own personal experience in the Fiji news media as the publisher of one of Fiji’s three daily newspapers, Fiji’s Daily Post; as a columnist; as a political commentator and as an independent Hindi programme presenter for the public broadcaster, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, during this turbulent period.
- ItemThe 2008 Olympic Games: Leveraging a "best ever" games to benefit Beijing(Auckland University of Technology, 2006) Tian, JingThis Thesis undertakes a leverage analysis of mega-events in the context of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A leverage analysis apparently different from a impact analysis; it focuses on how to maximize the potential positive impacts and minimize the negative impacts for an event that will be held in the future. To analyze the circumstance of the Beijing Olympics that are amendable to leveraging, the research methodology employed is empirical with method of semi-structured in-depth interviews with the government officials, tourism industry people and the local community members in Beijing. This thesis research conducted a leveraging analysis from three perspectives: environmental, socio-cultural, and tourism/economic perspectives. From each perspective, four angles would be investigated: identifying the potential impacts of 2008 Olympics; determining the leveraging activities for the potential impacts; uncovering the opportunities for leveraging the potential impacts, and exploring the challenges in leveraging the potential impacts. Because there is not any existing theory on a leverage analysis in the context of Beijing Olympic Games, this research was conducted with the guidance of “grounded theory”. The research indicated that the government aims to take use of the opportunity of hosting the “Green Olympics” to reap the ambition of making Beijing into a “greener” city, but how long would the policies last when the games are over is essential for the effectiveness. Similarly, the socio-culture would be leveraged by implementing the “People’s Olympic” theme. Finally, the tourism in Beijing would be leveraged by a series of leveraging activities derived form the Olympic Games. The findings of this thesis research will contribute to the event studies and the leveraging studies.
- Item2016: A Character Journey(Auckland University of Technology, 2016) Bloomfield, Georgina KateIt has always been standard practice for protagonists in screenplays to develop over the course of the story. The character development is even more significant in character arc centred stories, in which the protagonist is expected to complete some form of transformation by the end of the final act. This is especially true in coming-of-age stories, and more recently in minimalist science fiction screenplays which often use science fiction elements as a platform to explore the protagonist's inner conflict. My exegesis is an examination of the character arc centred screenplay, specifically focusing on the structure of character driven stories. The research will be an investigation of how the action and relationship lines in a screenplay are constructed to emphasise the character arc line. I have written a science fiction drama screenplay, Feelers, to explore this research topic. Feelers follows the story of Blake, a young woman who is unwilling to let go of her clearly uncommitted boyfriend. In a desperate attempt to earn enough money to join him overseas, Blake takes a job as a Feeler, absorbing the emotions of a middle aged housewife. Blake soon develops romantic feelings towards her employer's husband, Greg, and finds herself on the familiar path to codependency. The exegesis reports on: the difficulty of preventing Blake and Greg's relationship from stealing the focus of the screenplay, the classic coming-of-age story techniques I used to illustrate the protagonist's transformation, and the danger of commencing the writing process with an ambiguous character arc.
- ItemThe 2022 Winter Olympics: Sharing the Perceptions of Auckland's Chinese Diaspora(Auckland University of Technology, 2020) Chen, ZeruiIn 2015, Beijing (China) became the first city to win the rights to host both the Summer and Winter Olympic Games. This research was designed with the intention of discovering the extent to which Auckland’s Chinese diaspora believe that hosting the 2022 Winter Olympic Games will leave a positive or negative legacy for those living in Beijing, China. This research starts with a literature review that explores the existing sport event management research from a triple bottom line perspective (economic, social and environmental). From there, the researcher focused specifically on three types of legacies (economic, socio-cultural, environmental). A qualitative research approach provides the framework for this study. A range of established research methods was used to secure the recruitment of seven participants: four recent Chinese migrants (CM) and three New Zealanders of Chinese origin (NC). Semi-structured interviews were used to gather a valuable data set that was subsequently interpreted using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Eleven positive and eight negative perceptions emerged from the data analysis process, each of which was linked to one of the following legacy-related themes: socio-cultural, economic, reputation, environment, and infrastructure. These themes were compared with the current empirical research literature. From the integration of research findings and literature, some limitations and recommendations were generated. In sum, the majority of the participants placed the socio-cultural impacts as being the most important, followed by economic and reputational impacts. The potential infrastructure and environmental legacies were of less importance. The individual interviews revealed a collective belief that the opportunity for social and cultural exchanges, the facilitation of national cohesion/nationalism (national pride) and an increased opportunity to participate in local sports were all positive impacts of Beijing hosting the Winter Olympic Games in 2022. Concerns about the safety of locals, an abuse/loss of human rights and the disruption to everyday life were raised as potential negative consequences of hosting the event. According to the research findings, further research is required and recommended to investigate the potential impact and legacy of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. For example, more research is needed to investigate the reputational legacy of these Games from a positive and negative viewpoint. Additional research to investigate the environmental and Infrastructural (physical) legacies would also be beneficial (as supported by seven of the research participants). This research offers a valuable starting point for further research and debate about the perceptions of local diaspora regarding sporting mega-events.
- Item24 GHz Flexible Antenna for Doppler Radar based Human Vital Signs Monitoring(Auckland University of Technology, 2021) Kathuria, NitinNoncontact monitoring of human vital signs is an emerging research topic in recent years. A key approach to this monitoring is the use of the Doppler radar concept which enables real-time vital signs detection, resulting in a new class of radar system known as bio-radar. Unlike traditional techniques that use contact electrodes for vital sign measurement, bio-radar is non-intrusive and less perturbing for infants and patients with critical injuries. The bio-radar can even detect life under rubble in the aftermath of disasters. The antennas are a key component of any bio-radar module and their designs should meet the common requirements of bio-radar applications such as high directivity, circularly polarized, and flexibility. This thesis presents the design of a 24 GHz four-element antenna array on a low-cost and flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate with a thickness of only 100 m, low-loss tangent (tan=0.0021), stable dielectric constant (r=3.35) and low moisture permeability. The designed antenna array can be used with a bio-radar for vital signs monitoring in a non-contact manner. To the best of our knowledge, the design of flexible antenna arrays for bio-radar and the use of LCP for such applications have not been explored in literature. Any antenna array will require a unit element to be designed first. The unit element was designed with an input impedance of 50 Ω on LCP substrate, which is then used to construct a two- and four-element array with an overall dimension of 29.5×25.4 mm, and 5336.5 mm, respectively. The simulated gain obtained is 4.39 dB, 5.46 dB, and 6.68 dB for unit cell, two-element array, and four-element array, respectively. Other measured and simulation results showed close agreement. The two vital signs: breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) of two human subjects are detected with relatively good accuracy using the fabricated antenna arrays and RF output power of -3 dBm from a distance of approximately 60 cm.
- Item3 feet under: Is the traditional hāngī in danger of a cultural disappearance?(Auckland University of Technology, 2018) Richardson, RobertThe sharing of familiar foods is but one of the ways a cultural group identifies itself. But what happens if a cultural group begins to lose touch with its food traditions? How does the growing disappearance of these culinary cultural markers affect a cultural groups sense of identity and its spiritual and ancestral connections? In today’s Māori society, the hāngī is one of the last remaining traditional food preparation techniques still in use, but its use in its traditional form is growing more infrequent. Prior to European arrival in New Zealand, the hāngī (earth oven or umu) was used daily as the primary technique for the cooking of kai (Belich, 2007; Leach, 2010). The gradual introduction of European cooking techniques and oven apparatus has relegated the use of the traditional hāngī technique to hui or times of celebration and loss - particularly on the marae (Leach, 2010; Salmond, 1975). Yet even that role is quickly disappearing. Today’s marae kitchens are now equipped like a commercial restaurant or hotel kitchen, while there is now an increasing array of gas fired portable “hāngī” or MultiKai cookers (Coster, 2016; "MultiKai Hāngī Cookers," n.d.; "Te Kohatu Hangi Cookers," n.d.). In this research project, I set out to explore the cultural significance of the hāngī as a cooking technique within Māori society through the voices of those familiar with Te Ao Māori. Food itself continues to play an important part of Māori social gatherings through the concept of manaakitanga, but, in the instance of a hui for example, does it matter in any way if the food is not cooked in the traditional hāngī? Does the non-use of the hāngī as the cooking technique reflect in any way on the prestige of the event and/or on the mana of either guest or host? Through key informant interviews, this research project found two clear, very differing outlooks in how the hāngī is viewed and valued that depended on a person’s personal background. For those that grew up within a strong Māori culture, it is not the hāngī itself that they miss but the times when the events were bigger and more regular. It is these nostalgic recollections around which their affinity with the hāngī is based. For those whose interactions with it began later in life, the hāngī has not only provided a window into Māori culture, but provides both a professional and financial opportunity. But as seen in this study, of arguably greater importance is the role the hāngī plays as a cultural gathering and learning space within Māori culture. It is around the hāngī that many aspects of tikanga, social and environmental protocols, and manaaki are learnt. In doing so, the hāngī provides an anchoring point around which this process of cultural reaffirmation can take place. It is this aspect of the hāngī – the social and cultural educational opportunities that it provides – that this study highlights to be its most valuable today, and is the aspect that Māori are most likely to lose if the hāngī continues to shift to a more commercial practice.
- Item360° VR and Softball Umpire Decision-Making: Lessons and Insights(Auckland University of Technology, 2021) Kaiser, KeoneBackground: Despite the importance of effective sports officiating for athletes and fans across the world and across sports realms, research into improving the performance of these individuals has been lacking. Few, if any studies, have demonstrated effective methods for improving one of the key tasks of sports officials– accurate decision-making. Officials can improve their decision-making by accumulating experience officiating live games, but this takes time. As a complement to live-game experience and a way to train decision-making outside of a game, decision-making through broadcast video methods has been proposed and utilised. However, the ability of these methods to transfer skills to live games has been questioned. Due to their first-person perspective and accompanying features, 360° VR videos may offer improved decision-making accuracy training alternatives to 2D broadcast videos. Purpose: The current study examined and compared the use of 2D Broadcast videos and 360° VR videos by a cohort of softball umpires (N =17) to 1) assess sports official decision-making accuracy using 2D Broadcast videos and 360° VR videos; 2) compare Ecological Validity values between the 2D and 360° VR videos; 3) assess the connection between experience level and video condition; 4) obtain qualitative data on the video conditions through interviews of several softball umpires. Methods: A four-stage mixed-methods approach was used to gain more comprehensive and complementary results. Quantitative data was primarily gathered during the first three stages, while qualitative data was gathered during fourth stage. The results showed no significant differences in decision-making accuracy between the 2D Broadcast videos and the 360° VR videos (decision-making accuracy mean of 8.0 +/- 0.9 s.d. for 360° VR, 8.5 +/- 1.5 s.d. for 2D broadcast, p = 0.242), and no significant differences in accuracy by experience level on either video condition (novice accuracy mean of 8.5 +/- 1.4 s.d. on 2D broadcast and 8.0 +- 1.0 s.d. on 360° VR, expert accuracy mean of 8.5 +/- 1.7 s.d. on 2D broadcast and 8.0 +/-0.8 on 360° VR, p=0.961). The 360° VR videos received significantly higher EV values than the 2D Broadcast videos (7.1 +/- 2.0 s.d. on 360° VR, 4.4 +/- 1.9 s.d. on 2D broadcast video, p <0.001). Conclusion: Despite mixed results, the qualitative feedback from umpires supports the potential of 360° VR as a decision-making accuracy tool.
- Item3D computer graphics self-directed learning: a proposal for integrated demonstration and practice(Auckland University of Technology, 2011) Guinibert, MatthewThis research study examines 3D computer graphics (CG) self-directed learning (SDL). The study identifies learning and teaching problems with 3D CG SDL, proposes improvements, and then carries out the recommendations for improvement by building a proof of concept 3D CG SDL resource. The study is guided by three research questions: 1. What are the problems with 3D CG SDL resources perceived by learners? 2. Using the knowledge gained on problems with 3D CG SDL, can improvements be made? 3. How will these improvements function in practical application? This research draws on a heuristic theoretical position with a practice-based approach. Data collection and analysis utilize both quantitative and qualitative methods. The scholarly investigation of CG SDL sits within the theoretical framework of technology-mediated pedagogy as outlined by (Leinder & Jarvenpaa, 1995) but, due to the interdisciplinary nature of 3D, also crosses over to concerns of right and left hemisphere learning (McCracken, 2006; Comninos, et al, 2009). A key aim of this study seeks to demonstrate that improvements in 3D CG SDL learning and teaching are not only vital to the success of self-directed resources but that these improvements can also be implemented in a low-cost technological environment. The research has answered all the research questions in succession. The knowledge gained was on specific problems, recommendations and improvements, and how the improvements would work in practice. The study shows 3D CG SDL authors that there are problems with current resources, that there is room for improvement, and provides details on how these improvements could be made.
- Item3D Localization Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks(Auckland University of Technology, 2019) Ahmad, TanveerLocation information is crucial for the correct interpretation of data collected through wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The de facto system for wireless localization, Global Positioning System (GPS) does not work properly in indoor environment, thus researchers are thriving to find other localization schemes for indoor WSNs. The main goal of this work is to study and design three-dimensional (3D) wireless localization schemes for indoor applications. In this thesis, a new and accurate, efficient and cost-effective algorithm, called parametric loop division (PLD) has been proposed for localizing static nodes within a WSN. In the proposed technique, reference points can help to produce new parametric points by calculating the mid points and by taking step size that falls within the network boundary. The objective of PLD scheme is to estimate the actual localization volume and find the node position in 3D space by using subdivision method. In each step, triangles are subdivided into pairs with the addition of extraordinary nodes in its control ring matrix. Parametric points are generated by using the step size and RSSI is compared with threshold value for localization. The work involves the development of novel solution which utilizes the anchor node position information to calibrate nodes with unknown target, allowing it to work even in a changing environment with increased reliability and accuracy. Subsequently, PLD is evaluated in presence of different types of noises. Firstly, the localization accuracy was tested without the addition of noise in distance measurement. Like other schemes, PLD is adversely affected by the noise, which reduces the accuracy of the system. A new framework with extended kalman filtering (EKF) is proposed to refine the nodes coordinates affected by the noise. Furthermore, an analytical framework is presented with the detailed study of lower bound of the localization accuracy. The PLD is tested for naive, Gaussian and intelligent noise. The anchor node is modelled by only using the knowledge information of coordinates to redesign the distance vertex from anchor to parametric points. Finally, we consider the mobile based localization scheme, which has become popular recently with the development of autonomous robots and unmanned aerial vehicles. We designed an extended centroid based localization system that use the weight on distance to compute the signal power. A fuzzy logic approach is adopted for computation. The design is divided in to In the first phase, RSSI is mapped to fuzzy membership function. The mobile anchor exchange beacon and measure distance using RSSI data. The target node position is computed in a circle within the sensing region for a mobile anchor node, which moves on a random walk for broadcasting beacons. RSSI and signal power is used as an input for fuzzy system. In the second phase, for accurate node positioning a perpendicular bisector is drawn from rough estimation to circle drawn previously. Like EKF, fuzzy logic works well in nonlinear estimation of target nodes locations. Localization problem is evolving with the advance of mobile technologies and this thesis contributes to the fast development of this topic. However, there are still some issued left out as future study, mainly on the effect of anchor node localization error, implementing mobile anchor in a PLD algorithm and energy-aware localization schemes in WSNs.
- Item3D machine knitting: composite forms and illumination(Auckland University of Technology, 2014) Yun, HyunJinThis practice-led research process investigates the design and construction of innovative textile sculptures made from three dimensional (3D) knitted composite materials, and how their unique material, structural and textural qualities can be expressed through integration with light. This project shows how established machine knitted 3D form and surface structure techniques can be learnt on manual, hand-flat knitting machines, translated through knit notation and design software, and produced on computerised and automatic knitting machine systems. Through this process, procedures to foster learning and research are discussed, and opportunities for creative design and innovation are identified in order to find a stimulating and productive work and research method. In the course of this research, a range of 3D surface knit textiles and several 3D structured knit textile patterns were designed and fabricated with composite materials. The resulting pieces were tested for suitability as sculptural display and with the incorporation of micro-controlled electronic lights to create e-textiles. The findings of this research suggest that unique and innovative textile designs can be created by experimenting and extending proven 3D knit techniques with different combinations of materials. The findings suggest potential applicability towards cross-disciplinary fields like engineering, architectural design, consumer products and artistic endeavours, as well as further research within textile design to explore new materials with the developing scope of 3D shaping techniques.
- ItemA 3D printed ballistic drug delivery system for wildlife administration(Auckland University of Technology, 2019) Long, JingjunjiaoOverpopulation of wildlife, especially in pest-prone territories, is a major ecological problem. Culling is the most effective population control approach but drug-induced contraception is also common for protected species. The administration of contraception in the wild has been restricted to conventional methods such as surgery which require capturing and handling often large numbers of incorporative or dangerous animals. This thesis proposed a new approach for wildlife contraception by utilising three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to fabricate a novel ballistic drug delivery system (BDDS) capable of remotely administering contraceptives amongst any other required drug(s). A literature review was conducted focusing on the use and application of fused deposition modelling (FDM) method of 3D printing in drug delivery (Chapter 2). In chapter 3, A ballistic projectile for short-term (seasonal) progesterone (P4)-induced contraception was developed using FDM. A sustained drug release (over five months) was achieved with the projectile providing sufficient kinetic energy to penetrate thin and medium-thickness skins. Subsequently, this projectile was modified to a multi-compartment model capable of loading and delivering multiple drugs, including anti-inflammatory dexamethasone (DEX), local anaesthetic lidocaine hydrochloride (LDC) and contraceptive levonorgestrel (LNG). The drug formulations were independently developed in the following chapters: DEX was formulated in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels, and a sustained release was achieved over one month (Chapter 4), LDC was incorporated with chitosan-pectin (CS-PEC) hydrogel and manufactured as a customised 3D printed wound dressing that released LDC in 5h (Chapter 5), LNG was incorporated within a combined system of CS microspheres and PVA hydrogels, achieving controlled release for over two years (Chapter 6). The above formulations, can be easily incorporated into a multiple-compartment projectile as a BDDS or could be used individually for other clinical applications. The new knowledge created by this thesis provide new insights into ballistic delivery to wildlife, and make a major contribution to advance the application of 3D printing technology in drug delivery.
- Item5G Multi-Tier Handover with Multi-Access Edge Computing: A Deep Learning Approach(Auckland University of Technology, 2021) Kapadia, PercyThe research presented in this thesis discusses the potential enhancement of 5G multi-tier handover. This proposal will utilise two of 5G’s enabling technologies, multi-access edge computing (MEC) and machine learning (ML). MEC and ML techniques are believed to be the primary enablers for enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-reliable and low latency communication (URLLC). The subset of ML that was chosen for this research is deep learning (DL), as it is great at learning long-term dependencies. A variant of artificial neural networks called a long short-term memory (LSTM) network is used in conjunction with a lookup table (LUT), as part of the proposed solution. Subsequently, edge computing virtualisation methods are utilised to reduce handover latency and increase overall throughput of the network. In addition to the proposed, this thesis analyses the validity of various other potential solutions such as multi-connectivity, cloud centralised radio access networks (Cloud C-RAN) and artificial intelligence (AI). To implement the proposed algorithm, a software simulation of a multi-tier 5G heterogeneous network is developed, based on the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) standards for: channel models, schedulers, and handovers. This simulator provided the tools for the author to analyse and evaluate the feasibility of the proposed solution. The results gained from the research was promising. It showed a 40−60% improvement in overall throughput under high user densities. Although the proposed scheme may increase the number of handovers, it is effective in reducing the handover failure (HOF) and Ping-Ping rates in higher user density scenarios by 30%, and 86% respectively, compared to current state-of-the-art. In conclusion, a detailed analysis was undertaken, and the aims of the research were satisfied.
- ItemA blueprint for the interpretation of GST Act 1985 with reference to Privy Council and Supreme Court decisions(Auckland University of Technology, 2010) Yunting, LuGST is a substantial revenue raiser for New Zealand. It has been internationally acclaimed and adopted by other countries. The framework for the tax is prescribed by the Goods and Services Tax Act 1985 (“the Act”). Under the Act, GST is charged on a supply of goods and services made in New Zealand on or after 1 October 1986 by a registered person in the course or furtherance of a taxable activity which is not an exempt supply.2 Given the fiscal significance of GST, the Act is a significant piece of legislation. How is this significant legislation to be read and applied? This paper interprets some of the leading court decisions. It is, of course, the role of the courts to interpret and apply the Act. The higher the court the more authoritative the decision, and the more likely its reasoning is to be applied in subsequent cases. The decisions of the highest court – the Privy Council and, more recently, the Supreme Court – should therefore be accorded great weight when interpreting GST law. The paper therefore analyses threshold decisions of the Privy Council and the Supreme Court on the Act.
- ItemA civil and ecclesiastical union? The development of prison chaplaincy in Aotearoa-New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology, 2008) Mansill, Douglas BNew Zealand prisons were a colonial construct established by early colonial administrations to deal with criminal behaviour occurring at the time of European settlement. Like the prison system, prison chaplaincy also had its origins in colonial experiences from the United Kingdom where chaplains were employed to meet the spiritual needs of those in institutions such as schools, hospitals, colleges, the military and legations. This thesis addressed the question of how the partnership between Church and State administrators in New Zealand for the provision of chaplaincy services developed between 1840 and 2006. Four phases were identified in the evolution of prison chaplaincy: phase one 1840-to-1950, characterised by ad hoc arrangements between clergy and local prison management; phase two 1951-to-1989 when Secretary for Justice Samuel Barnett established a formal relationship with the National Council of Churches and the Roman Catholic Church to provide chaplains for penal institutions; phase three identified as ‘prisons in change’ 1990-1999, when the Interim Chaplaincy Advisory Board and Prison Chaplaincy Advisory Board worked in tandem with the Departments of Justice and Corrections to administer the Prison Chaplaincy Service, arising from the recommendations of the Roper and Perry Reports; and phase four 2000-to-2006, a period when the Prison Chaplaincy Service of Aotearoa New Zealand was contracted to the Department of Corrections to employ prison chaplains. The research adopted a multi-faceted approach, consisting of phenomenology, ethno-methodology and hermeneutics to understand attitudes and experiences of key players and institutions in the evolution of Prison Chaplaincy. Data was collected through interviews of key informants, critical evaluation of published and unpublished material in public and private collections. The study identified six key factors that influenced the development of Prison Chaplaincy in New Zealand. These were: the nature of the Church-State interface, the impact of biculturalism, the influence of theological and ecclesiastical trends, and the impact of inter-church politics, the influence of socio economic trends and developments, and changes in Government policy. It also found that while there were tensions, the Church-State partnership had positive benefits for the spiritual outcomes for prisoners.
- ItemA comparative analysis of New Zealand and Australian offshore investment rules(Auckland University of Technology, 2008) Mahabir, Sujan SanjayThe deregulation of major world economies led to increased globalisation of enterprises which provided opportunities for New Zealand and Australian taxpayers to expand or move their businesses offshore. The globalisation brought niche opportunities for businesses to develop profitable offshore operations. The growth in offshore investments triggered the problems associated with the erosion of the New Zealand and Australian tax base. The risk in New Zealand was identified by the Labour led Government in the early 1980’s; when New Zealand entities began investing in tax haven countries to take advantage of lower tax rates in these countries. As a result in late 1980’s, New Zealand and Australia introduced offshore investment rules. The reasons for the introductions of the offshore investment rules by the two countries were similar, but the rules differed in a number of ways. One of the main differences was that New Zealand did not differentiate between active and passive activities. On the other hand, the Australian tax rules exempt active business activities carried out offshore. Recently, the New Zealand Government announced that it is reviewing the Controlled Foreign Company (CFC) rules and like Australia, New Zealand CFC rules would exempt active income from tax; and only passive income would attract income tax. This dissertation explores and compares the development of offshore investment rules in Australia and New Zealand. The exploration of the offshore investment rules involves a comparison of the history, economic theories, and tax avoidance possibilities. The main area of focus of this study is the CFC and Foreign Investment Fund (FIF) rules.
- ItemA comparative of subtitling strategies: culture specific items in the series Friends(Auckland University of Technology, 2009) Zhao, HanThe dissertation is based on the analysis of thirty episodes of the American television series Friends with the focus on the CSIs (Culture Specific Items) and how these differences have been handled by Chinese translators who produced the subtitles for the English-Chinese translation. The analysis was based on the assumption that Mainland China’s culture is different from the US culture so people in these two countries may have problems in understanding CSIs if they are translated literally and if the subtitle translation is not adapted to the target audience. Such adaptation is normally known as localisation. The cultural differences that are ingrained in CSIs might have to be handled with caution in the production of subtitles. The main objective of the dissertation has been to analyse different translation choices which are currently used by the translators in questions, dealing with CSIs where cultural differences between mainland China and the US arise. The research discovered that repetition of CSIs is a strategy which underperformed, failing to help the Chinese audience to comprehend the cultural connotations associated with the CSIs. The paper has provided some recommendations as to how the subtitle translation of such CSIs might be handled in such a way that the audience will have a better understanding of the same.
- ItemA Comparative Study of Cosmetic Brands’ Discursive Appeals to Their Consumers on Weibo and Twitter(Auckland University of Technology, 2023) Gao, QianwenIn today's interconnected global landscape, international cosmetic brands have adopted increasingly sophisticated discursive strategies to appeal to their audiences across various online platforms. Notably, their focus lies on Twitter and Weibo, two important social media platforms that cater to distinct market segments, each with its own language and cultural influences. This study explores how these international cosmetic brands tailor their advertisements to appeal to Chinese audiences on Weibo and Western audiences on Twitter. It involves a mixed- method thematic discourse analysis of 160 posts of online cosmetic advertisements, collected from the official accounts of eight international cosmetic brands across both Twitter and Weibo. The analysis identified the recurring key appeals in the posts and the discursive strategies used to structure these appeals, ultimately facilitating the observation of the similarities and differences in how international cosmetic brands engage with their audiences on Weibo and Twitter. The findings show that while there are many similarities, for certain appeals the brands optimise their social media content to align more specifically with the cultural preferences and language nuances of each platform, tailoring their linguistic content accordingly. This approach allows them to effectively resonate with their target audiences, expand their brand reach, and foster a stronger online presence in the global beauty market.
- ItemA comparative study of mobile internet deployment models in New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology, 2008-01-17) Huang, RaymondInternet services play an increasingly important role in modern society. Mobile Internet, a fast-growing technology that combines the Internet with mobile devices, has recently become popular. It is predicted that the convergence between mobile networks and the Internet would become the next generation of network architecture, and mobile IPv6 is likely to emerge as the most efficient and cost-effective instrument to achieve "anywhere and anytime" fast Internet and resolve the problems of worldwide mobility management. This research project reviews mobile Internet competition and the market mix in New Zealand, both major players and minor players being involved. The researcher also investigates the requirements of the mobile Internet deployment model from two perspectives: the market and the consumers. Finally the connection between end user services (for example, mobile Internet) and convergence (for example, network convergence and technology convergence) are examined in the research study conducted.The researcher applies a multi-case study strategy to conduct the research project and interview is adopted as the major research technique in order to collect research data. Several organizations which deploy mobile Internet services in New Zealand are chosen as participants, with the aim of offering both personal insights and business views to the research questions and objectives.