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- ItemCommunicating agriculture: the media & interest group politics (1997 - 1998)(Auckland University of Technology, 2000) Oosterman, AllisonThis thesis applies a pluralist theoretical approach to an analysis of the relationship between the media and a selected economic interest group. The study endeavours to discover the extent to which the pluralist model applies to the relationship between the media, interest groups and the state during a time of uncertainty about the future structure of the dairy industry. In the course of the thesis the most relevant features of pluralism are examined and then applied to the topic. It may be that as a result of the analysis, an alternate reading to pluralism is required. The notion that the media's activities are essential for the operation of a pluralist democracy is discussed focussing on the media’s key role in the operation of interest group activity, in the relationships between other interest groups and between government and the public at large. Looking at the New Zealand situation, factors that may have affected the ability of the media to carry out their role are examined. For the purposes of this study the pluralist model is applied to the relationship between the interest groups, the state and the media during the debate in 1998 over the future structure of the dairy industry. The role of the mass media of television, newspapers and radio as well as the specialist farming press is examined. An assessment is made as to the extent to which these media organisations impacted on the policymaking process. Research should indicate whether the posited Governor Model of Pluralism actually worked in this instance. From information gleaned from this case study some general conclusions about the role of the media and interest groups in policy making in New Zealand are offered.
- ItemVirtual and the actual: Representation and the object(Auckland University of Technology, 2000) Budd, Helen RosalindIt is declared that we live in an ‘information age’, one where much of our daily experience comes in mediated form, in print or on screen. Information about our world is brought to us through words and images selected and interpreted by others. We can communicate by fax and e-mail, don alternative persona on the Internet, experience alternate realities in computer games, and create convincing digital images from mathematical co-ordinates. Yet we still rely, for sustenance, clothing and housing at the very least, on real things. What then is the significance of real objects: the actual, and what are the limits of the virtual experience in replacing them? The focus of this thesis is on objects – ordinary, everyday objects or things – and the significance they have in human lives. Frequently overlooked, or disregarded as unimportant, objects nevertheless fulfil functions of use, of consumption and transaction, signification of status, and demarcation of social roles. “Soon we will all be doing our shopping on the Internet”, and “we won’t need museums at all soon, it will all be done by virtual reality”. These two examples of frequently heard rhetoric provide a base for the research, selected as areas where unfamiliar objects may be encountered for the first time and which can be expected to reveal the limitations of representation through a virtual experience. In order to assess how effectively the properties of objects can be represented, it is necessary first to understand the range of properties that objects have, and the role of the images which will carry the representation. This has been sought from those who work with or study objects and their place in society. From the fields of education and child development, craft and art theory, philosophy, photography and anthropology; from sociology, museology and material culture studies have come insights into the significance of objects and their qualities. The wider contextual settings of museums and shopping have been explored, and in depth studies conducted. Museums were visited, both in New Zealand and in London, with staff interviews augmented by visitor experience. A survey of Internet shoppers and non shoppers has revealed attitudes and behaviours which will undoubtedly influence the course of the virtual experience. After examination of the practicalities and implications of technological development, the thesis concludes by collecting together a wide range of the identified properties which objects can have, and examining the limitations of conveying them through image and text. Drawing these findings together with the contextual background, allows informed appraisal of the phrases “soon we will all be doing our shopping on the Internet”, and “we won’t need museums at all soon, it will all be done by virtual reality”, and of the implications which would follow.
- ItemExperiencing the relationship: the client and the community occupational therapist. A phenomenological study(Auckland University of Technology, 2000) Paddy, AnnWhile the therapeutic relationship between clients and therapists has been explored from the therapist perspective, few studies show the client view. This qualitative study reveals the experience of ‘being in the relationship’ from the viewpoint of both people with physical disabilities and community occupational therapists. The philosophy underpinning the research and analysis is that of Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology. This approach is used in order to reveal the significance of taken-for-granted aspects of the relationship that lie hidden, covered over by everyday assumptions. Study participants include five clients, and six therapists, who have a depth of experience of the relationship being examined. In-depth narrative audio-taped interviews are used. The stories tell of participants’ experience of interacting with each other in relationships that work well for them and in ones that do not. The findings of this thesis show that clients recognize previously hidden aspects of the relationship, frequently unacknowledged by therapists, such as the importance of the therapist’s persona and the significance of therapists’ actions to clients’ perception of their own value. What happens when the therapist is not with the client matters within their relationship. The differing modes of care therapists use influence clients’ well being. Therapists need to acknowledge the effect of their prejudices and ‘personal selves’ in their interaction with clients, and the breadth and depth of their ‘professional role’ within therapeutic relationships. They need to be open to recognizing when the relationship is unsatisfactory for the client. For it is therapists who hold the key to accessing future possibilities including resources. When the relationship fails, it will be the client who loses out.
- ItemHellbank.com(Auckland University of Technology, 2001) Sie, May-Lingwww.hellbank.com offers the thesis that: - the properties of net art are related to ideas that 19th century subjectivist Austrian School economic theoreticians had about the nature of process and the exchange of information - in its conviction that the pre-determinant of all economic activity is the exchange of information, Austrian School’s subjectivist economic theory effects an aestheticisation of economic exchange through the denomination of media of exchange. - these ideas influenced the development of information technology, and that they have culminated in a theory of globalisation which is supported by its own, ubiquitous technology of globalisation. - these technologies act to reduce transaction costs, and that this has been successfully achieved by the implementation of information technologies, particularly the net. - cultural constructs, "the way we do things at our place”, often involve a strategic construction, management, and appointment, or shifting of the burden of transaction costs. - there is conflict between the cultural construction of transaction costs, and the commercial need to reduce transaction costs. This exegesis of hellbank.com explores this thesis by - Describing my own personal predicament of identity, and placing it within a theoretical context - Describing the endogenously derived realism of Austrian School economic theory, within the context of a critique of liberalism, written in the 1930s from a position of exogenously derived realism, by the Nazi, Carl Schmitt, one of the few twentieth century theoreticians of national sovereignty. - Describing the theoretical context in which the polymath John von Neumann designed the von Neumann architecture - Giving an example of the cultural construction of transaction costs, and their implications in gift giving.
- ItemA kinematic analysis of acute and longitudinal adaptations to resisted sprinting(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Hansen, KeirThe phase of greatest acceleration (0-30 metres) during sprinting is thought to be critical for success in many sporting situations. Methods for improving acceleration phase performance are therefore an important area of study for conditioners and sports scientists. Typically a variety of resistance training techniques are used to improve strength and power of the lower limb musculature that is important to sprinting performance. One such technique is resisted sprinting which involves the use of apparatus such as weighted vests and sleds to provide movement specific overload to athletes. The purpose of this thesis was primarily, to compare sprint times, step variables and joint kinematics when sprinting with a vest loaded at 15% and 20% of the athlete’s body mass and towing a sled with 15% and 20% of body mass. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of a six-week training program utilising resisted sprinting on acceleration phase performance in three athletes. In the first study, 20 semi-elite subjects performed five 30-metre sprints: one unloaded sprint, two sled sprints loaded at 15% of their body mass and 20% of their body mass, and two vest sprints with the same loads relative to body mass. Each sprint was videoed in the sagittal plane at five, 15 and 25 metres from the start of the 30-metre sprint and times were recorded at 10 and 30-metres using timing lights. Video data were digitised and the following step variables were calculated: step length, step frequency, stance phase duration and swing phase duration. Stance phase angles of the trunk, thigh, knee and ankle were also calculated. Step length, step frequency and swing phase duration during vest and sled sprinting were found to decrease significantly (P<0.05) when compared to unloaded sprinting values. Stance phase duration during vest and sled sprinting increased compared to unloaded sprinting values (P<0.05). Additionally, sled towing displayed significantly greater (P<0.05) trunk flexion at foot strike and toe-off, and significantly greater (P<0.05) knee flexion at foot strike than both the unloaded and vest sprinting conditions. Sled towing also induced significantly greater thigh extension at toe-off compared to the vest conditions (P<0.05). Thus the addition of load to the athlete via vest sprinting and sled towing may influence performance in different ways, and hence the objective of the athlete should be considered when choosing which of these techniques to use. In the second study, a single subject research design was utilised to assess whether sled towing and vest sprinting resulted in changes in performance over a six-week period of training. In this study, three subjects trained twice a week for six weeks using resisted sprinting. Subjects were randomly assigned to sled training, vest training or combinationtraining (one training session a week with each apparatus). Subjects were tested at baseline, after three weeks of training and after six weeks of training for 10 and 30-metre sprint times and selected step variables (step length, step frequency and stance phaseduration). Data analysis involved both visual analysis of graphed data and statistical analysis using the two standard deviation band method. The combination training subject improved performance over both 10 and 30 metres. Step variable data were inconclusive regarding the mechanisms behind these improvements. Neither sled towing nor vest sprinting resulted in significant improvements in performance. The results indicated that the use of both training apparatus in unison may be required in order to improve performance during the acceleration phase of sprinting.
- ItemLiving with peripheral vascular disease: A one-person case study(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Richardson, JimThis single-person case study, informed by phenomenology, describes the meaning for Tom (the participant) of living with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Data collection included one face-to-face semistructured conversation and a further brief telephone conversation to seek Tom’s confirmation of the study findings. The data was analysed using Colaizzi’s (1978) phenomenological seven-step descriptive analysis framework. The findings are presented in the form of five narrative themes that best represent Tom’s experience of living with PVD. They include Living in a Mindset, A Male Thing, Facing Reality, A Weird Existence and A Heightened Awareness. They reveal how living with peripheral vascular disease has been incorporated into Tom’s way of life. The themes demonstrate how Tom managed his ulcers, how he accommodated his limitations, his state of vulnerability and how he continued to lead a “weird” yet rewarding life, despite the hardship he endured. The unexplained weirdness of Tom’s story has been presented in a way that aims to facilitate understanding of the phenomenon. Some of the significance of this study therefore lies in the tactful action of the phenomenologically informed approach, which enables the reader to understand the puzzle and weirdness of why Tom delayed treatment and acted as he did. The study facilitates the potential to heighten the awareness and challenge assumptions of nurses and other health professionals as they attempt to interpret a chronic illness experience from the patient’s perspective. A key suggestion made from the study findings is that health professionals should include in their practice routine assessments for patient fears and self-imposed delays to treatment in order to facilitate the provision of timely and suitable interventions. Further research allowing patients’ voices to be heard is necessary to substantiate the extent of this problem and how it can most appropriately be resolved.
- ItemDress as ornament(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Lau, KimThe approach to 'Dress as Ornament' is a specific focus on a subject that is broad and diverse. It is about design in dress as a messenger for the idea of excess through the details of ornamentation and focuses on the exploration of materials and techniques as a way of understanding and articulating a conceptual basis for ornamentation of dress. The approach taken has utilised the elements of ornamentation as integral to the structure and very fabric of dress, rather than a more traditional application added to an existing surface. It also examines the nature of ornament - what ornament is and defines what constitutes the ornate. The format of the thesis is an exhibition of a collection of garments and a written exegesis.
- ItemDesigning information websites(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Lu, WenxinThis thesis is composed of a practical component involving the design of two websites and a written exegesis. The first site is the redesigned New Zealand Design Archive/Graphic project, which archives and profiles historical data and research about the history of graphic design in New Zealand. The second site is the Monkey Peach Collection. This dynamic data-driven online gallery allows designers and artists build and discuss an accumulation of information about New Zealand-Chinese artists and designers. The exegesis concentrates on the implementation of information sites and considers definitions and approaches to information architecture, information design and dynamic websites with a literature review analysing some academic online resources and commercial online galleries.
- ItemHealth news and media manipulation: An examination of health reporting, and what this means for journalism today(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Kibby, Joanna YevilyThis thesis will investigate, firstly, the presentation and handling of health news and ‘miracle cures’ by the media today and, secondly, what this in turn means for journalism, particularly New Zealand journalism. The series of stories written and produced about Lyprinol, a mussel extract reported by the New Zealand media to be a miracle cancer cure, will be used to help illustrate some of the points raised about the media’s coverage of health and related issues. I employed the Political Economy context throughout this thesis, looking in particular at how news organisations are constrained and shaped by the political and economic environment in which they operate, and how this in turn shapes the news that they produce. I looked specifically at the increasingly intimate relationships between the media and health organisations and drug companies, the commercialisation and subsequent sensationalism of the news, the traditional and ideal roles that the media should play in modern society, and finally, what can or should be done, if anything, in order to make the media more accountable and responsible for their actions. This thesis will show that commercialisation is a determining factor and, subsequently, sensation is a pervasive feature, of much of what the media produces about health and related issues. This thesis will also contend that the media’s presentation of health and ‘miracle cures’ is both harmful and misleading – enough to justify introducing new or more effective ways of making the media more responsible and accountable to the public, whom it is undoubtedly their duty to serve.
- ItemThe contribution of medio-lateral balance during activities in sitting and standing in hemiplegic subjects(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Recordon, AnneResearch on balance in the medio-lateral direction is sparse compared to that undertaken in the anterior-posterior direction. There is a correlation between poor medio-lateral balance and falls investigated in elderly and recently in subjects with hemiplegia. Investigations into the muscle activity required for medio-lateral balance in normal and hemiplegic subjects suggest falls may occur as a result of poor timing, modulation and duration of specific muscle activity essential for medio-lateral balance. Further, there is support for retraining medio-lateral balance using task related functional activities. The results of a single subject design experiment undertaken as part of this dissertation indicated that medio-lateral balance in a hemiplegic subject, can be retrained using body weight support treadmill training, two years after stroke. Results from this study therefore provide support for this physiotherapy technique being effective in improving medio-lateral balance in subjects with hemiplegia.
- ItemMe, myself and I: An artist exploration of notions of identity(Auckland University of Technology, 2002) Heiford, DanaThis project will explore through practical art means the way notions of identity are constructed by the individual. Using myself as subject matter I will explore the multiple aspects and fluid relations which constitute a sense of me, myself and I with a particular focus on sexuality. The intention is to raise issues and questions and to manifest new relations using the medium of art as a flexible vehicle for juxtaposing and testing complex interrelationships of ideas. Psychological and sociological contexts will be addressed and the relationship between these and my own sensibilities will be explored. The research approach will be to investigate notions of identity and explore the possibility of multiple personal narratives. It will explore the unique identity of the artist, that is, of the individual perspective of an artist instead of a theorist. To emphasise the central themes of my research I will take a multi-angled approach to methodology, working simultaneously on several responses to the research question. The practical project will be explored through various different visual media with the range of styles and approaches further developing the idea of a decentred self. This accompanying exegesis will discuss the methodological approach taken, as well as issues and contexts surrounding the project.
- ItemAn investigation into the effect of stretching frequency on range of motion at the ankle joint(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) Trent, VanessaStretching is a widely prescribed technique that has been demonstrated to increase range of motion. Consequently it may enhance performance and aid in the prevention and treatment of injury. Few studies have investigated the frequency of stretching on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stretching frequency on range of motion at the ankle joint. The detraining effect was also investigated after a period without stretching. Thirty-one female subjects participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to a control group who did not stretch a group who stretched two times per week (Stretch-2) or a group who stretched four times per week (Stretch-4). The stretching intervention was undertaken over four weeks and targeted the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Each stretch was held for duration of 30 seconds and repeated five times. Prior to the intervention (PRE), dorsiflexion was measured using a weights and pulley system that passively moved the ankle joint from a neutral position into dorsiflexion. After the four week stretching period (POST), dorsiflexion was measured once again to determine the change following the stretching programme. Following a further four week period where no stretching took place (FINAL), dorsiflexion was measured to determine the detraining effect. Electromyography was used to monitor the activity of the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors during the measuring procedure. The results of the study showed a significant increase in ankle joint range of motion for the Stretch-4 group (p<0.05) when comparing PRE and POST measurements. The Stretch-2 and control groups did not show significant differences (p>0.05) between PRE and POST measurements. When comparing the PRE and FINAL measurements of the Stretch-4 group, no significant differences were recorded (p>0.05). The POST and FINAL measurements were significantly different (p<0.05). After the detraining period the Stretch-4 group lost 99.8% of their range of motion gains. The present data provide some evidence that the viscoelastic properties of the muscle stretched were unchanged by the four week static stretching programme. The mechanism involved in the observed increase in range of motion for the Stretch-4 group is possibly that of enhanced stretch tolerance of the subject. Further research is required to support this conjecture.
- ItemOrganisational learning: managing environmental complexity and change(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) White, Natalie CThis thesis presents an investigative analysis of organisational learning and addresses two key gaps evident within the literature: 1. Diversity of thought over what constitutes organisational learning 2. Lack of empirical study that authenticates the 'practice' of organisational learning In examining these two gaps this thesis provides a synthesis of the fragmented literature, resulting in the development of five core tenets that together constitute organisational learning. Until now, this type of synthesis has never been undertaken. The core tenets are then tested to address the question of whether organisational learning is practiced. This involved a Content Analysis of reports made by Senior Management in leading New Zealand organisations. A pragmatic approach was used in analysing this data, allowing for both quantitative and qualitative methods. The chief finding of this study is that four of the five tenets of organisational learning are prevalent, to varying degrees, among the New Zealand organisations studied.
- ItemThe effect of acupuncture on alpha-motoneuron excitability(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) Chan, Alexander Kam ShingThe analgesic effect of acupuncture is well known. Areas in the brain and higher centres that are activated by acupuncture have been mapped out. Some of these areas are also implicated in the modulation of motor function. In addition to pain relief, acupuncture has been found to increase range of movement in patients with increased muscle tone. There is, however, scant knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect.
- ItemFacing up to cancer: the lived experience of being diagnosed with a life threatening form of cancer(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) Lothian, NeilThis Heideggerian phenomenological hermeneutic study explores the lived experience of those coming to terms with the diagnosis of a life-threatening form of cancer. It offers an interpretation of the narratives of eight adult New Zealanders, three men and five women, aged between 25 and 60 years of age who had been recently diagnosed. The study, based upon van Manen's (1990) six-step method, uncovers the experience of the person facing up to being told they have a life-threatening form of cancer within New Zealand society. It is informed by the writing of Heidegger. The study explores the meaning of cancer to the person involved and how this meaning affects them and their world. The study explores the changes within the person and how this change in the person subsequently changes the understanding they have of themselves and the world. The narratives of participants reveal a journey that is undertaken, a journey they thought they would never undertake and were not prepared to take. The cancer journey begins suddenly, is frightening in its intensity, towards a perceived destination of probable death. The real journey for many takes an unforeseen detour along the way, a detour of hope and eventual enlightenment. The final journey for all human beings will always end in death. The realisation that all human journeys must and do end in death and learning to live with the reality of this one fact in life is the major lesson learnt by those who experience the cancer journey. The journey is made more difficult and lonely by a society that wishes to fool itself that this journey does not happen or wishes to believe that one day this journey may be totally avoided. Society, and the people that make up society, need to face the reality of the cancer journey for many of its members in order to better prepare the person for the journey and to support the person while on this journey.
- ItemThe laxative effect of kiwifruit(Auckland University of Technology, 2003) Patel, MinaxiBackground Whole fruits, grains and vegetables contain thousands of potential disease-fighting, healthpromoting nutrients. These foods play a critical role in bowel function, especially in the elderly. Strong epidemiological evidence has shown that greater amounts of crude dietary fibre are associated with a lesser prevalence of constipation and other gastrointestinal disorders. Constipation usually presents as a variety of symptoms, including reduced frequency of defaecation and impacted forms of stools and/or increased effort required to defaecate. Constipation is a problem that could affect any person at any time in his or her life, but in the elderly is more prevalent. Although anecdotal reports and dietary advice have suggested the use of kiwifruit as a laxative in humans, there are, at present no data available to support this. Kiwifruit is reported as the most nutrient-rich of the top 27 fruits eaten in the world today. The laxative property of kiwifruit could provide a natural remedy for constipation and would be cheaper than the laxatives on the market. Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate if kiwifruit can act as a laxative, especially in elderly people. Study Design and Methods: This study was carried out in two stages, as a pilot and then a main study. In the pilot study, 71 participants (aged 18 – 50y) were divided into Group I and Group II. Group I made no changes to their normal diet for a six weeks period, while Group II were asked to add one kiwifruit for every 30kg body weight per day to their diet for a six week period. After the six weeks, the two experimental groups crossed over, maintaining the dietary regime followed by the other group for a further six weeks. So each subject was his or her own control. Daily recording of the frequency and characteristics of the stool were made by the participants in a diary. In the main study, 42 participants (aged 60 years and over) carried out the same dietary regime as the pilot study subjects. Elderly subjects of Group I made no changes to their diet, but was asked to record their daily frequency and characteristics of their stool for 3 weeks. Group II subjects ate one kiwifruit for every 30kg body weight per day for a period of 3weeks. After the three weeks period, the two groups crossed over. Results: It was found from the pilot study that kiwifruit consumption was associated with significant softening of the stool (P<0.001); a significant increase in bulking of the stool (P=0.034) and the ease of bowel movement was improved (P<0.001). For the main study, kiwifruit consumption also showed softening of the stool (P<0.001) and the ease of bowel movement was improved (P<0.001), there was a slight but significant increase in bowel frequency (P=0.012) and the bulking of stool (P=0.002). Conclusion: The results from this study provide evidence that consumption of kiwifruit enhances laxation and that bowel function can be improved through changes in diet, both for younger and elderly people.
- ItemWork: The problematics of image saturation and multiplicity in visual culture(Auckland University of Technology, 2003) Gardiner, ScottNo abstract.
- ItemCharacteristics of traditional and contemporary art and design on Auckland urban marae(Auckland University of Technology, 2003) Harwood, HaupuruThe purpose of this study is to explore the various characteristics of urban marae in Auckland including the use and meaning of artworks within marae wharehui(gathering place meeting house) including the materials, the makers and the decision making processes. Also included is a description of the artworks on these marae (gathering places), the context of understanding Maori cultural values and traditions as well as differences between traditional and contemporary ritual ceremonies and protocols. The thesis identifies thirty three (33) urban marae in Auckland and six (6) of these were selected as case studies for exploration of the above factors in depth. The interviews of the key personnel from each of the case studies enables exploration of the meaning and purpose attached to each marae and their selected artworks. The findings suggest that the traditional marae generally utilized indigenous or New Zealand materials and artists. This was because the classification of a traditional marae was directly linked to their local or tangata whenua standing and this in turn meant they had both cultural and strengths in resources. In contrast the religious institutional marae usually lacked significant artworks (including traditional construction components) which was said to be because of a lack of available funding, resources and support. Overall the study finds that values, beliefs and mauri were important influences in understanding the meaning and purpose of selected artworks and the origin of the materials and construction of those artworks. For example, the role and status of the kaumatua (elder) and the use of traditional rituals and ceremonies and protocols would often authenticate the artworks or artifacts even though they were not indigenous. Especially important is the use of te reo Maori (Maori language) in this process. No reira e nga tupuna - manaakitia te wairua, te mauri o nga mahi I tukua iho mai e koutou I roto I enei marae wharehui e ono, a I roto hoki I nga wharehui o te ao whaanui. Kia mahia tonu mo ake, ake, ake tonu. Therefore, (this plea) to ancestors – bless the spirituality and life essence that have been handed down for each of these six gathering place meeting houses and for all meeting houses through out the world. May this continue for ever and ever and ever after.
- ItemMemory to artefact(Auckland University of Technology, 2003) Piper, GregNo abstract.
- ItemLegends: The nexus between drag and identity(Auckland University of Technology, 2003) Devon, Donesse NolyThis project and accompanying exegesis investigate the relationship between Drag and identity within contemporary Queer culture. The exegesis acts as a contextualising document for a body of practical research [Bookwork: Legends]. This body of work is an investigation into the [portrait] ‘subjects’ constructs of identity and their relationship to contemporary Queer notions of Drag. This document is comprised of comprehensive interviews and analogue photographic studio portraiture as primary research. The project considers the issues of Drag and identity through interviews, portraiture and commentary.