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Tuwhera Open Access Theses & Dissertations contains digital copies of theses, dissertations and research projects from AUT's postgraduate research, deposited with the Library since 2002. The full text digital files are available if the author has given permission for their thesis, dissertation or research projects to be available open access.
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- ItemFacing up to cancer: the lived experience of being diagnosed with a life threatening form of cancer(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) Lothian, NeilThis Heideggerian phenomenological hermeneutic study explores the lived experience of those coming to terms with the diagnosis of a life-threatening form of cancer. It offers an interpretation of the narratives of eight adult New Zealanders, three men and five women, aged between 25 and 60 years of age who had been recently diagnosed. The study, based upon van Manen's (1990) six-step method, uncovers the experience of the person facing up to being told they have a life-threatening form of cancer within New Zealand society. It is informed by the writing of Heidegger. The study explores the meaning of cancer to the person involved and how this meaning affects them and their world. The study explores the changes within the person and how this change in the person subsequently changes the understanding they have of themselves and the world. The narratives of participants reveal a journey that is undertaken, a journey they thought they would never undertake and were not prepared to take. The cancer journey begins suddenly, is frightening in its intensity, towards a perceived destination of probable death. The real journey for many takes an unforeseen detour along the way, a detour of hope and eventual enlightenment. The final journey for all human beings will always end in death. The realisation that all human journeys must and do end in death and learning to live with the reality of this one fact in life is the major lesson learnt by those who experience the cancer journey. The journey is made more difficult and lonely by a society that wishes to fool itself that this journey does not happen or wishes to believe that one day this journey may be totally avoided. Society, and the people that make up society, need to face the reality of the cancer journey for many of its members in order to better prepare the person for the journey and to support the person while on this journey.
- ItemOrganisational learning: managing environmental complexity and change(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) White, Natalie CThis thesis presents an investigative analysis of organisational learning and addresses two key gaps evident within the literature: 1. Diversity of thought over what constitutes organisational learning 2. Lack of empirical study that authenticates the 'practice' of organisational learning In examining these two gaps this thesis provides a synthesis of the fragmented literature, resulting in the development of five core tenets that together constitute organisational learning. Until now, this type of synthesis has never been undertaken. The core tenets are then tested to address the question of whether organisational learning is practiced. This involved a Content Analysis of reports made by Senior Management in leading New Zealand organisations. A pragmatic approach was used in analysing this data, allowing for both quantitative and qualitative methods. The chief finding of this study is that four of the five tenets of organisational learning are prevalent, to varying degrees, among the New Zealand organisations studied.
- ItemThe effect of acupuncture on alpha-motoneuron excitability(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) Chan, Alexander Kam ShingThe analgesic effect of acupuncture is well known. Areas in the brain and higher centres that are activated by acupuncture have been mapped out. Some of these areas are also implicated in the modulation of motor function. In addition to pain relief, acupuncture has been found to increase range of movement in patients with increased muscle tone. There is, however, scant knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect.
- ItemAn investigation into the effect of stretching frequency on range of motion at the ankle joint(Auckland University of Technology, 2002-01-01) Trent, VanessaStretching is a widely prescribed technique that has been demonstrated to increase range of motion. Consequently it may enhance performance and aid in the prevention and treatment of injury. Few studies have investigated the frequency of stretching on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stretching frequency on range of motion at the ankle joint. The detraining effect was also investigated after a period without stretching. Thirty-one female subjects participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to a control group who did not stretch a group who stretched two times per week (Stretch-2) or a group who stretched four times per week (Stretch-4). The stretching intervention was undertaken over four weeks and targeted the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Each stretch was held for duration of 30 seconds and repeated five times. Prior to the intervention (PRE), dorsiflexion was measured using a weights and pulley system that passively moved the ankle joint from a neutral position into dorsiflexion. After the four week stretching period (POST), dorsiflexion was measured once again to determine the change following the stretching programme. Following a further four week period where no stretching took place (FINAL), dorsiflexion was measured to determine the detraining effect. Electromyography was used to monitor the activity of the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors during the measuring procedure. The results of the study showed a significant increase in ankle joint range of motion for the Stretch-4 group (p<0.05) when comparing PRE and POST measurements. The Stretch-2 and control groups did not show significant differences (p>0.05) between PRE and POST measurements. When comparing the PRE and FINAL measurements of the Stretch-4 group, no significant differences were recorded (p>0.05). The POST and FINAL measurements were significantly different (p<0.05). After the detraining period the Stretch-4 group lost 99.8% of their range of motion gains. The present data provide some evidence that the viscoelastic properties of the muscle stretched were unchanged by the four week static stretching programme. The mechanism involved in the observed increase in range of motion for the Stretch-4 group is possibly that of enhanced stretch tolerance of the subject. Further research is required to support this conjecture.
- ItemMidwives' experiences of working with women in labour: interpreting the meaning of pain(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Vague, StephanieA key midwifery activity is the support of a woman in labour. Pain in labour has been extensively researched from the woman's perspective, but less has been explored in relation to the midwife and her approach to pain. The way in which the midwife works with a woman and her pain in labour is the focus of this qualitative study, using Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology. This philosophical approach seeks to uncover or illuminate aspects of the midwife's practice which are frequently taken for granted in their everydayness. Seven midwives, including both independent practitioners and hospital-employed, were interviewed. Their narratives were analysed to uncover the meaning of the way in which midwives work with women and their pain in labour. The findings of this thesis suggest that midwives work by interpreting the woman's pain. Before the pain begins, they 'leap ahead' to help them anticipate the pain and how they will confront it. During labour, midwives give pain meaning by translating its purpose in that context. They 'leap in' when required, sometimes using 'self as an intervention. Midwives interpret women's pain through their understanding of lived time. They know how the perception of time passing changes depending on the setting for labour or the amount of anxiety and pain the woman is experiencing. Midwives use time in their work. They break it down to help a woman focus on a single contraction rather than looking too far ahead toward the unknown. Time can be a midwife's friend when the arrival of the baby replaces the urgent need for pain relief. It can also be her enemy if her interpretation of a woman's pain differs from the woman's perception. The memory of pain may persist for the woman, after labour has finished, with a backlash for the midwife. Some midwives believe in the process of birth and the woman's ability to labour with such conviction that they gain a woman's complete trust. At her most vulnerable time, they encourage the woman to call upon inner reserves and be truly empowered by her experience.
- ItemThe role of attributional style in a call centre environment(Auckland University of Technology, 2007-05-23) Fulcher, Patricia AnnThis study explored the relationship between attributional style and the performance of front line service staff in a call centre environment. Attributional style was evaluated using a well recognised method (Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire). This was the first time that the Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) has been used in a New Zealand context. Performance was calculated using five independent measures. These measures have been used for several years by the company at the centre of our study as an objective measure of Call Centre Representative (CCR) performance. The association between attributional style and performance was then examined using a combination of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and co relational analysis. People have different ways of reacting to adversity such as failure, rejection or a high-pressure situation. The ability to succeed is closely tied to the ability to handle adversity (DeCarlo et al., 1997; Seligman & Schulman, 1986; Boone, 2000). Research has supported the common sense view that optimistic beliefs can be self-fulfilling prophecies (Sujan, 1999a; Porter, 2000; Furnham et al., 1994). Hundreds of studies have revealed the benefits of optimism such as increased motivation, superior achievement (in various areas e.g. work, school and sports), elevated mood and well-being, and better physical health (Seligman et al., 1990; Seligman et al., 1986). Furthermore, individuals can learn to reduce negative ways of thinking and become more optimistic when it is appropriate (Satterfield et al., 1997; Eronen et al., 1999; Bohart, 2002).Call centres are not new phenomena, however they have become a growth industry in the private and public sector over the last decade (Creagh, 1998). The following definition of call centres was used by Gilmore and Moreland; "A physical or virtual operation within an organisation in which a managed group of people spend most of their time doing business by telephone, usually working in a computer-automated environment." (2000, pg 4)Due to the size and the complexity of tasks undertaken within call centres, there is a growing need for empirical findings to broaden understanding of how to best manage call centres and how to optimise the utilisation of human capital (Feinberg et al, 2000).This cross-sectional study assesses the performance of Call Centre Representatives (CCRs) in a New Zealand based call centre and explores whether there is an association with the Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ).It was found that the performance measure for soft skills varied significantly when ranked by a measure of optimism. The performance measures considered in this study focus mainly on technical competency and task efficiency, and were therefore not well explained by attributional style. Future research should investigate pre-testing for soft skills at recruitment, interventionist training on attitude and whether that translates into improved soft skill performance, and the reassessment of current call centre performance measurements.
- ItemConfronting design: case studies in the design of ceramics in New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Thompson, ChristopherThis study maps a way of looking at design history in New Zealand through the investigation of a taxon of industrially manufactured ceramics. Understanding design as an enfolded process of production, distribution, mediation and consumption, three threshold moments are identified as occurring within the European settlement period: the internationalisation of commodity production and consumption; the emergence of import substitution; and the deregulation of the market. While production has formed an element in the design of ceramics in New Zealand, it is contended that greater significance lies in both the trade and the mediation of these commodities and in particular in the way these have influenced local consumer choice. Emerging from this study, a series of key binaries become apparent: between the metropolitan centre and the frontier; between state and business; and between the traditional and the progressive. Likewise, the positioning of design within the institutionalised sites of power-or its absence from them-has been a prime force both in the development of manufacturing industry and in determining the nature of the consumer market.
- ItemShifting focus: how registered nurses in residential aged care organise their work: a grounded theory study(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) McKenzie-Green, Barbara ARegistered nurses in residential aged care work with older people who have complex care needs. Besides providing direct care, these nurses have a wide range of responsibilities which include supervising staff and attending to the smooth running of the care facility. This grounded theory study using dimensional analysis was aimed at answering the question: How do registered nurses organise their work? Indepth interviews were conducted with 10 registered nurses who worked in a range of positions in aged care facilities. Theoretical sampling and constant comparative analysis was used to guide both ongoing data collectiona and data analysis. Categories were examined for their relationships and dimensions to arrive at a substantive grounded theory which I have named 'shifting focus'. Individual and institutional philosophies of care were core elements in the registered nurses' focus of work. There was a relationship between staffing adequacy, individual and institutional philosophies of care, and the focus of registered nurse work. These relationships created conditions where the registered nurse would focus on ensuring the delivery of individualised resident care or focus on getting through the routine of care. The relationship between staffing adequacy, philosophies of care and the registered nurses' focus of work remained consistent when staffing adequacy changed. In instances of decreased staffing adequacy, the participants' focus shifted to either maintaining individualised care or focusing on safety. When the registered nurse aimed to change the philosophy of care, an increase in staffing adequacy enabled some aspects of cultural change to commence. The relationships between residents, family and staff were significant contrasting elements within an individualised philosophy of care, and an institutional philosophy of care. In the former, relationships were valued and developed. In the latter, they were benevolent, functional or conflicted. The significance of this study is that it reveals how registered nurses and management personnel in aged care facilities, can create conditions where the relationships between residents, their families and staff, are valued and developed to result in positive care outcomes. It is recommended that future research be conducted to examine the resources required to maintain an individualised approach to the nursing care of residents in aged care facilities.
- ItemAssociation of ABO, Lewis and Secretor phenotypes and genotypes with Neisseria gonorrhoeae(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Perry, Elizabeth HollyPrevious studies of association of ABO phenotypes with gonorrhoea have shown contradictory results. Despite the interdependencies, none have examined the combined effect of ABO, Lewis and Secretor phenotypes. Furthermore, none have used genotyping to confirm phenotyping. This study is ground-breaking in this regard, and illustrates how such an association study should be performed. STUDY DESIGNS AND METHODS: The study examined 175 individuals who tested positive for gonorrhoea, and 211 individuals who tested negative for gonorrhoea. Strain typing was not performed. The following blood grouping methods were performed on the study participants: ABO phenotyping Lewis phenotyping, and genotyping of selected samples Secretor genotyping Chi-square and p values were used to examine whether or not there is an association of ABO, Lewis and Secretor blood group related molecules with gonorrhoea infection. RESULTS: Neither random statistical analysis of data sets, nor statistical analysis of data sets arranged by blood group, yielded a statistically significant association of ABO, Lewis and Secretor phenotypes and genotypes with Neisseria gonorrhoeae that could not be refuted when the data was disaggregated for ethnicity. The study did show a statistically significant difference in the incidence of the partial secretor phenotype (26.7%) in the gonorrhoea positive population and the incidence of the partial secretor phenotype (15.4%) in the gonorrhoea negative population, when all ethnic groups were analysed together. However, when the data was disaggregated for ethnicity, the p values were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There is no association of ABO, Lewis and Secretor phenotypes and genotypes with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Nevertheless, this study still has merit, because, to the author's knowledge, it is the first time a study of these human blood groups with a disease has been performed correctly.
- ItemA comparison between media representation of Asian international students and their own accounts of experience in New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Qin, XiaomeiThis research takes as its starting point the role of the media as a major influence on the way people understand and interpret events, focusing on media coverage of Asian international students in New Zealand. The thesis investigates the differences between media accounts of Asian international students and students' own perceptions of their experiences, using both quantitative and qualitative methods.This topic has become one of high community interest since 1999 when the New Zealand Government changed its education policy to encourage the expansion of the export education industry, leading to the number of international students increasing rapidly. Many of these students are teenagers and come from non-English-speaking Asian backgrounds to study in universities, colleges, high schools and private institutions in New Zealand. As well as the obvious effects on the New Zealand economy, the presence of these students has also influenced New Zealand culture. For example, many international students have homestay experiences with New Zealand families. This meeting of different cultural backgrounds introduces both sides to different value systems, lifestyles, beliefs and customs. This cultural diversity not only challenges international students to adapt themselves to New Zealand society, but also provides an opportunity for native New Zealanders to understand the incoming cultures. For Asian international students in particular, this process can be problematic and their behaviours have been closely scrutinised by the media.
- ItemSimulation of variable fluid-properties plate heat exchanger for educational purposes.(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Protheroe, MichaelIn this thesis a novel computer based model is developed which accurately simulates the operation of a plate heat exchanger (PHE). The model allows for the variation of all relevant fluid properties as the temperatures of the fluids vary through the PHE. It is set up in a spreadsheet in such a way that one can observe the variation of fluid properties and heat transfer parameters through the PHE during steady state operation. Although the model could be used for general purpose analysis of PHE's, it is intended to be used in an educational environment, where students can run "virtual lab sessions" with the model and so gain a better understanding of the overall and detailed operation of plate heat exchangers. The model is validated using experimental data representing a range of different PHE sizes, flow configurations, fluid types and flow conditions. Instructions have been provided on how it can be used in an educational environment to assist student to discover more about the general and detailed operation of a PHE.
- ItemTechno-futurism and the knowledge economy in New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Stephenson, Iain JamesThis thesis analyses the material and ideological dimensions of the knowledge economy with particular reference to New Zealand. The emergence of the new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the context of transnational capitalism precipitates the co modification of information, communication and knowledge. This process is obscured by the ideological construction of techno-futurism. Techno-futurism is a combination of technological determinism and futurism that appropriates notions of progress. In the pages which follow, historical analyses of this ideology inform the subsequent critique of knowledge economy discourse. In New Zealand knowledge economy discourse contained techno-futurist elements and deflected attention from the global absorption of national capitalism. In this context the Catching the Knowledge Wave Conference (KWC), held in Auckland in the first days of August 2001, is examined. I argue that the instigators and organisers of the conference were enmeshed within the business culture of finance capital and ICTs. Textual analysis of keynote addresses reveals the ideological dimensions to knowledge wave and knowledge economy talk. These dimensions are; entrepreneurialism, knowledge as (economic) progress, and globalism.
- ItemEvaluation of the conflict resolution questionnaire(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Henning, MarcusMany questionnaires used in the measurement of conflict are expensive and difficult to obtain. In addition, instruments of this kind are usually associated with diagnosis rather than intervention and education. The present thesis evaluates the recently developed questionnaire that is easily accessible through the Internet, the Conflict Resolution Questionnaire (CRQ). The CRQ was developed as a measure of the conflict resolution ideas presented by Weeks (1994), and Fisher and Ury (1991). It has been used to measure a person's ability to create mutually beneficial resolutions to conflict for all participants. In addition, the CRQ items measure respondents' perceptions regarding how often they engage in certain conflict-related behaviours, and their level of awareness regarding conflict issues. The CRQ is also designed to promote understanding of conflict, and has been used as an educational tool. Participants were asked to fill in the CRQ alongside an established questionnaire, the Rahim Organisational Conflict Inventory, part two (ROCI-II) (Rahim, 1983a). The responses of 338 participants to the CRQ and ROCI-II were statistically analysed. Hypotheses were tested regarding the CRQ's reliability and validity. CRQ reliability was statistically appraised through exploration of internal consistency and split-half reliability scores. CRQ validity was examined by evaluating the CRQ in terms of content, construct and concurrent validity. Establishing content validity was a qualitative process. Corroborating construct validity essentially relied on factor analysis procedures. Decisions regarding CRQ's concurrent validity were based upon correlation measures between the CRQ and the ROCI-II, which was used as an established standard measure of conflict. The results confirmed that two of the McClellan's (1997c) factors were reliable and that the CRQ had content validity. There was marginal support of construct validity, whereby from the factor rotation it was shown that two of the CRQ factors were matched by their derived counterparts. In addition, the results showed modest support for concurrent validity based on the comparisons of three CRQ factors against two factors from a well-established questionnaire. These findings also lend support for the methods of conflict resolution presented in the works of Weeks (1994) and Fisher and Ury (1991).A modified version of the CRQ is presented, the 'CRQ-II'. A posthoc analysis suggests that the CRQ-II can satisfy psychometric requirements, although further research is recommended to confirm the CRQ-II. Practice implications regarding the development of the CRQ-II are discussed, and future research considerations are explored.
- ItemCaregiving for children who have had a traumatic brain injury: structuring for security(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Jones, Margaret AThis New Zealand study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the day-to-day occupations of family caregiving for children who had sustained a traumatic brain injury. Semi-structured interviews and participant observations were employed to gather data from five families including children of pre-school and school age and their parents. Constant comparative analysis of the data revealed a central caregiving category, Structuring For Security, which encompassed two simultaneous and interdependent caregiving processes. A model is presented illustrating the processes.Structuring For Security describes the way the parents' caregiving is directed towards building a framework that provides for the present and future safety and success of their children. Holding Things Together explains endeavours to contain the distressing events resulting from the accident, with a focus on protecting the children from physical and emotional dangers. Joining My Child With Others explains what is happening when parents set things up for their children to spend time in activity with other people. The two processes are mediated by support from others, and involve learning and use of practical knowledge about the child. Successful implementation of the processes results in parents' increasing awareness of their ability to cope, progress in the children, and children's successful participation with other people. Participation in the processes is ongoing, responding to change in the child and in the environment.The study findings suggest a basis for the development of a framework that families and clinicians might use to guide caregiving for children after a traumatic brain injury. The findings also indicate the importance of supporting parents in developing effective caregiving structures that fit with their concerns for their children's safety and success with others. Consideration needs to be given to policies that take into account the safety issues involved for children and the support needs of parents following the accident.
- ItemComputerised detection and classification of five cardiac conditions(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Gao, George QiAn electrocardiogram (ECG) is a bioelectrical signal which records the heart's electrical activity versus time. It is an important diagnostic tool for assessing heart functions. The interpretation of ECG signal is an application of pattern recognition. The techniques used in this pattern recognition comprise: signal pre-processing, QRS detection, feature extraction and neural network for signal classification. In this project, signal processing and neural network toolbox will be used in Matlab environment. The processed signal source came from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) arrhythmia database which was developed for research in cardiac electro-physiology.Five conditions of ECG waveform were selected from MIT-BIH database in this research. The ECG samples were processed and normalised to produce a set of features that can be used in different structures of neural network and subsequent recognition rates were recorded. Backpropagation algorithm will be considered for different structures of neural network and the performance in each case will be measured. This research is focused on finding the best neural network structure for ECG signal classification and a number of signal pre-processing and QRS detection algorithms were also tested. The feature extraction is based on an existing algorithm.The results of recognition rates are compared to find a better structure for ECG classification. Different ECG feature inputs were used in the experiments to compare and find a desirable features input for ECG classification. Among different structures, it was found that a three layer network structure with 25 inputs, 5 neurons in the output layer and 5 neurons in its hidden layers possessed the best performance with highest recognition rate of 91.8% for five cardiac conditions. The average accuracy rate for this kind of structure with different structures was 84.93%. It was also tested that 25 feature input is suitable for training and testing in ECG classification. Based on this result, the method of using important ECG features plus a suitable number of compressed ECG signals can dramatically decrease the complexity of the neural network structure, which can increase the testing speed and the accuracy rate of the network verification. It also gives further suggestions to plan the experiments for the future work.
- ItemPhysical activity in a sample of New Zealand professional employees(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Badland, Hannah MPhysical activity is now a key strategy for preventing or minimising numerous chronic diseases. Worksites are an ideal location to promote regular physical activity. For workers, a large portion of waking hours is spent at work where numerous opportunities exist to accumulate physical activity. Consequently, the aims of this thesis were to: 1) systematically review worksite physical activity literature, especially in the New Zealand context; 2) identify the contribution of worksite activity to total activity levels, and the correlates contributing to physical activity levels for professional occupations; and 3) objectively measure physical activity changes with point of decision prompt visibility in professional worksites. Accordingly the thesis incorporated one systematic review and two separate studies.Effect sizes calculated in an analysis of previous worksite physical activity health promotion studies show inconclusive evidence for increased employee retention and job satisfaction, and no evidence of reduced absenteeism or productivity increases. A major criticism of worksite research is that many unvalidated and unreliable designs are used, limiting study efficacy. Research initiatives need to identify the determinants of physical activity for different occupations, ethnicities, and gender in New Zealand worksites.Study 1 (N=56) consisted of participants wearing two pedometers over a three-day block, and subsequently completing a Three-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). A moderate, positive Spearman correlation (r=0.28) existed between the METs (3DPAR) and total pedometer values. Contributions of (mean + SD)worksite (14 283 +4761), non-work (12 516 +4 172), and total (26 798 +8 933) pedometer values were analysed. The sample was divided into tertiles according to total step counts. The high activity group (HAG) achieved more physical activity outside the workday (56%) when compared to the lowest activity group (LAG) (29%). Physical activity correlates were identified using binary logistic regression and simple correlation analyses. Relationships between physical activity and active transport, manual work, sport and exercise, and individual exercise were shown.Study 2 evaluated the National Heart Foundation (NHF) point of decision prompts for increasing physical activity levels in professional worksites. Forty-six participants (27 men and 19 women) wore two pedometers for three days, over four occasions to monitor changes in physical activity. The study was a crossover design with Worksite 1 receiving the treatment for three weeks, followed by a six-week wash out period, then a three-week control. Worksite 2 was given the control prior to the treatment period. Results indicate that the NHF point of decision prompts were ineffective at increasing objectively measured work and total physical activity levels, showing trivial positive (0.04) to moderate negative Cohen effect sizes (-0.79). When point of decision prompts were visible in the worksites overall mean step counts decreased. On the basis of these findings, the NHF's point of decision prompts had no effect, or were potentially detrimental to physical activity.Nevertheless, both studies were limited by some traditional worksite design problems, including low participation and sample contamination. However, by incorporating an objective measure of physical activity (pedometers) and a robust study design, these findings are the first objective measures of worksite physical activity, and the effects of point of decision prompts in a confined sample.
- ItemDesperately seeking a national identity : an examination of narrative in the Heartland television series and its influence in defining New Zealanders(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Smith, PhilippaTelevision permeates our daily lives. Ninety seven per cent of New Zealand households have a television set and the average watching time is estimated at 20 hours per week (Grimes and Tyndall, 1999). This exposure to television has been recognised as an important factor in the way we see and identify ourselves as a nation - how we seek to find signs and symbols that construct a shared identity and culture that make us New Zealanders and distinguish us from other nations.Using narrative theory combined with critical discourse analysis this thesis aims to show that, even in factual programmes, stories can be constructed that convey messages of nationhood and belonging, creating and recreating a national identity that present New Zealanders in a positive way and seek to bind them as a nation.Three episodes of the television series Heartland, a popular documentary in the mid-1990s that explored the people and lifestyles in different locations around New Zealand, were selected for analysis focusing on narrative structure, the social actors and the role of the narrator. Critical discourse analysis was employed to look at the connection between language, image and text, and discursive practices as well as the relationship the text has in a socio-cultural context.The analysis found that the programmes followed a similar narrative structure to that of a fictional story involving changes in states of equilibrium that created a sense of concern or anxiety associated with what it means to be a New Zealander. However the subsequent resolution of these anxieties combined with the entertaining role of the programme presenter Gary McCormick and the involvement of social actors, resulted in a version of New Zealand's national identity being represented as a reality through a positive discourse of the population working towards a socially and culturally harmonious society.
- ItemTelevision New Zealand's Charter: the struggle between social responsibilities and commercial imperatives(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Teoh, ElnaThe research for this thesis started just before the TVNZ Charter was released in 2001. It followed the discussion regarding the new direction for the broadcaster to follow a more public service role. The data gathering was conducted through to post Charter implementation and captured the uncertainty surrounding the shift in policy. Although the aim of the TVNZ Charter was to raise the standards of public service broadcasting the introduction of this new policy was marked by confusion as to how this would be achieved, funded and monitored.The TVNZ Charter was introduced with the prescription that TVNZ find a balance in achieving public service needs in television as well as maintaining the revenue from advertising. This was because the government was not willing to provide sufficient funding for a non-commercial service and hence the result was always to be a hybrid model. It was frequently emphasized that Charter programmes should rate well and there was strong stress on the importance of retaining and attracting audiences.The core changes leading to the introduction of the TVNZ Charter owe their origins to the major policy turning point of 1989/1990, when broadcasting was deregulated in New Zealand. The free market provided programmes with a focus on entertainment and the previous dictum that they should also educate and inform was no longer spelled out in the Broadcasting Act. As only one of the traditional principles of television was being satisfied, there was a measurable decline in programmed diversity and it is argued, quality. The freedom of deregulation allowed TVNZ to pursue the goal of earning as much advertising revenue as possible. Therefore, the TVNZ Charter was hailed as a significant change of direction to ensure that public service needs were met.Even though it can be argued that many positive changes have resulted since the TVNZ Charter was mooted, it is argued that the drive to reposition TVNZ as a public service broadcaster seems to have resulted in a very diluted form of public service broadcasting. A major shift in direction has been compromised by a fear that significant changes in programming would result in a dramatic loss of vital advertising revenue.
- ItemLesbian mothers: queer families: the experience of planned pregnancy(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Bree, CarolineLesbian-identified women are choosing to become parents in increasing numbers. This 'lesbian baby boom' has implications for midwives and their practice. The purpose of this study was to gain insight and understanding of planned pregnancy from a lesbian perspective, in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate care for lesbian mothers and their families.The methodology used for the study was radical hermeneutics informed by lesbian feminism and queer poststructuralism. Purposive sampling identified ten lesbian-identified mothers and conversational interviews with the participants yielded rich data about the phenomenon of inquiry. Thematic analysis of the data was foregrounded by a discussion of the socio-political context.A number of findings emerged from the study. Careful pre-conceptual planning reflected a highly responsible approach to parenting. The women's partners felt uncertain about their parenting role and experienced a lack of acknowledgement by the wider community. Despite legal access to assisted fertility, the participants usually sought an involved father for their child. Lesbian mothers expressed a preference for a lesbian midwife and all experienced homophobic attitudes from healthcare professionals. Queer families included mothers and their partners, fathers and their partners, children, families-of-origin, and close friends.Recommendations from the study include the provision of safe and supportive workplaces for lesbian-identified midwives, the use of inclusive language such as partner and parent, acknowledgement of the woman's partner as a co-parent, midwifery resources featuring same-sex parents and midwifery education covering diverse family forms.
- ItemBeing together and separate: a grounded theory study of the experience of first-time fathers during childbirth(Auckland University of Technology, 2003-01-01) Carbines, MariaThis grounded theory study explored the experience of first-time fathers during the time of birth with the aim of developing a conceptual framework to explain how they managed the process. In sharp contrast to the recognised maternity care practices of a generation ago, most fathers in New Zealand are currently expected to be present when their babies are born. There has been little New Zealand-based research to determine what the birth experience is like for fathers. Because contemporary fathers are expected to fulfil a major role in the care and support of mother and baby from pregnancy through to new parenthood and beyond, exploring the experience of fathers during birth is a way to understand part of the childbirth process from the perspective of husbands or partners in the developing new family. Eleven first-time fathers from the North Island of New Zealand participated in antenatal and postnatal interviews that were conducted over a 20-month period. Transcripts were analysed using grounded theory processes of coding, constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling, and a conceptual diagram was developed to explain the core process which was discovered, namely, 'being together and separate'. It emerged that fathers could feel separate from the birth process, together with the birth process and at times they could experience both positions concurrently. Influences on participants' experience of 'being together and separate' included social expectations, the level of control that participants wished to have during the birth and the ways in which fathers were drawn in or excluded by wives/partners and maternity caregivers. The ways in which maternity caregivers responded to the involvement of fathers in the birth process was found to have a significant impact on the participants' experience of the process. Implications for the practice of maternity caregivers and childbirth educators are the importance of assessing each father's needs antenatally and of assisting them to develop strategies for participating comfortably in the birth experience. The relevance of supporting fathers to participate in the childbirth process at a level that promotes positive birth outcomes for the entire expectant family is demonstrated, and some practical strategies are provided that can assist health professionals and others to support fathers.