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- ItemAn emerging framework for ethnography of adult mathematical and numeracy practices(Adults Learning Mathematics, 2013) Smedley, FPThis paper presents a potential ethnographical framework for examining in-situ adult mathematical practices. It results from a meta-analysis of over 400 articles and reports published on adult mathematics and numeracy practices in the workplace, everyday life, and assorted other situations where numeracy is present (for example, sports events). The framework is also informed by a combination of my own academic sociolinguistic and mathematical backgrounds. Consequently, it draws on a synergy of insights from sociomathematics, ethnomathematics, social practices theory, and the history of mathematics. It is envisioned that this ethnographic framework may assist in excavating mathematical practices at multiples levels (semiotic, material, discursive and diverse others), and thus provide a way forward to offering ,among other things some pedagogical insights on the teaching and learning of mathematics for adults.
- ItemAn exploratory investigation of the effects of form-focused instruction on implicit linguistic knowledge(Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand, 2004) Roach, K.; Bitchener, J.It is, arguably, implicit linguistic knowledge rather than explicit linguistic knowledge that is the goal of second language acquisition. The question arises, however, of how such knowledge can be tested (R. Ellis 2003). This article reports on an exploratory investigation of issues associated with measuring the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the acquisition of implicit linguistic knowledge in an intact pedagogical context. The study involved 19 elementary-level adult learners of English who received planned focus-on-forms instruction on the Past Simple tense and who were subsequently tested for both immediate and sustained gains. The results of the study indicate that form-focused instruction may have been effective in promoting immediate gains but that there was no sustained effect. However, such an interpretation is considerably weakened by the fact that the control group statistically outperformed the instructional group. Such a result may be indicative of the aim to preserve ‘ecological validity’ (van Lier 1988) at the expense of rigorously controlling extraneous variables when conducting research of a quasi-experimental nature. The study, however, raises a number of issues that future researchers should take into account when designing further investigations of implicit linguistic knowledge.
- ItemBilingual Patient Navigator or Healthcare Interpreter: What’s the Difference and Why Does It Matter?(Taylor & Francis, 2019)A lot of studies have been conducted examining the roles of Patient Navigators in various healthcare settings. Little research is available to date on the roles of bilingual Patient Navigators. This article combines a comparative review of the literature around Patient Navigator roles with findings from a study examining the role of bilingual Patient Navigators at Seattle Children's Hospital.
- ItemBook Review: Promoting Spontaneous Use of Learning and Reasoning Strategies: Theory, Research and Practice for Effective Transfer(Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-06-02) Strauss, PNo abstract.
- ItemCan busy classroom teachers really do action research: an action research study in an EAL [English as Additional Language] tertiary setting(Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand, 2006) Denny, HGRecent literature in general and language teacher education has promoted the benefits of empowering teachers to be in control of their professional development and curriculum development through reflection on practice and classroom based action research. The ‘teacher as researcher’ and ‘teacher as reflective practitioner’ movements are strongly influential in teacher education practice at present (Zeichner, 2001). Edge (2001) argues that action research augments the traditional notion of teachers as professionals who take theory and realize it in practice to include the notion of teachers as professionals who generate theory from practice. But how realistic for busy classroom teachers working in New Zealand conditions is classroom action research? Is this activity useful for such teachers and under what conditions is it possible? This paper describes an action research project carried out to investigate these questions. The participants in the study were a group of EAL classroom teachers at an Auckland tertiary institution, themselves undertaking classroom based action research into the teaching of casual conversation. Significant benefits are reported for teaching and research skill development, but there are also constraints. Recommendations are made with respect to the optimum design and resourcing of such teacher action research projects.
- ItemCode-switching and language maintenance as reflected in the daily communication among Chinese in Auckland(AUT University: CNKI, 2006) Yu, STraditional study on code-switching has mainly been focusing on three aspects of this phenomenon: its social function and meaning, psycholinguistic mechanism, and grammatical constrains involved. This paper, however, investigates code-switching in relation to language shift and language maintenance. The results show that, regardless of the children’s general family background, their parents’ jobs and their English language proficiency, if the parents use English, the children’s use of English will be rapidly increased. Moreover, there is an “upgrading” in children’s language choice towards English. Combined with other analysis, this study seem to suggest that family/home is where the first language is acquired and it is also the last place to maintain their ethnic language among the young immigrants. Parental strategies employed in responding to their children play an important role.
- ItemCollaboration and Creativity During a Global Pandemic(Conference of Interpreter Trainers, 2020-12-21) Major, G; Crezee, I
- ItemA Conceptual Approach to Teaching L2 Pronunciation: Perception of Word Stress(TESL-EJ Publications, ) Couper, GResearch has demonstrated that pronunciation teaching can be effective, but there have been very few classroom-based studies that have focused on the perception aspect of pronunciation. This article explains the theory and practical application of a conceptual approach and reports on its impact on perception of English word stress. The quasi-experimental study (N=18) involved four fifty-minute lessons on stress in two-syllable words in a high-intermediate ESL class. The experimental (n=10) group was tested pre, post (mid-semester) and delayed (end-semester) and the comparison (n=8) group was tested twice before receiving the instruction in the second half of the semester and being tested again. In line with a conceptual approach, the innovative testing method used moves beyond traditional identification tasks in an attempt to measure changes in participants' conceptual understandings. The tests showed large and significant gains in perception, which were retained eight weeks later. The comparison group made no gains, but after instruction improved on a par with the experimental group. This study presents an effective way of teaching pronunciation concepts, supported by theory, that also leads to improvements in perception. It informs and provides a template for both teachers and researchers who may want to replicate the study.
- ItemDesigning for Diversity in Aotearoa / New Zealand Chinese Language Classrooms(SAGE Publications, 2023-04-18) Qi, GY; Sun, SYH; Carvalho, LThere has been an increased interest in teaching and learning Chinese language across many schools in Aotearoa / New Zealand (NZ). Chinese language teachers, particularly those new to the Aotearoa/NZ schools and education system, are confronted with (1) an educational environment that calls for learner-centred pedagogies and (2) an increasingly diverse classroom that requires these teachers to adopt pedagogical strategies that address and cater for diversity. In response to these needs, this article discusses a case study of a research-informed professional development (PD) workshop designed to support Chinese language teachers to (1) identify ways that diversity manifests in the Aotearoa/NZ classroom and (2) figure out how to design for learning whilst accounting for diversity in Aotearoa/NZ. The workshop promoted a discussion on diversity from an inclusive, heterogeneous perspective, and introduced teachers to contemporary conceptual ideas connected to ‘teaching-as-design’, and to the Activity-Centred Analysis and Design (ACAD) framework. Teachers (N = 19) were randomly assigned to groups of three to five. Groups were encouraged to collaborate on the design of learning tasks that incorporated TBLT (Task-Based Language Teaching) and addressed diversity in the classroom. Analysis of their design activities and produced artefacts reveals that teachers’ understanding of diversity comprised many characteristics, they held a positive attitude towards being responsive to diversity, and were able to experiment with new design concepts and ideas using the ACAD toolkit. In particular, teachers were able to successfully expand the design of their learning tasks to include social and material design elements to address learner diversity. Findings also reveal teachers’ emerging awareness of their dual role as facilitators and as teacher-designers.
- ItemDeveloping an English language/literacy course for adult deaf learners: insights from the chalk-face(AUT University, 2005) Roach, K.This paper offers insights into the teaching of literacy / English language to adult learners who are severely and profoundly deaf. The paper builds on an earlier study (Denny 2002), which documents the inclusion of Deaf learners in an adult migrant ESOL program at the School of Languages, Auckland University of Technology, and the subsequent establishment of a Deaf only Literacy / English language course (Roach 2002, Thompson forthcoming). The present paper draws on the on-going reflections of the course developer / classroom teacher over a period of 4 years. A number of themes are identified and these are explored in relation to (1) adult literacy (2) bilingual education (3) ESOL methodology (4) curriculum development and (5) teacher decision-making. Practical suggestions are made that may help guide others in what is essentially uncharted territory.
- ItemDiscourse analysis of popular song lyrics(AUT University, 2011-07-29) Turner, EThis paper outlines a thesis that involves a three-tier approach to the discourse analysis of historically and culturally significant song lyrics in the New Zealand album Whats’ Be Happen? (Herbs, 1981). The study is framed by language theorist Mikhail Bakhtin’s theorisation of language and discourse as “dialogic”. That is that utterances are actively engaged in social dialogue, where meaning is understood “against the background of other concrete utterances on the same theme” (Bakhtin, 1981, p.281). Bakhtin emphasises an analysis that therefore overcomes divisions between form, content and context. The first level or meta-analysis focuses on the dialogic relationship between the lyrics and other contemporaneous and more recent texts that articulate their political, social and ethical context. The second, meso-analysis investigates heteroglossia (Bakhtin’s term for the multiplicity of voices, languages and genres), and intertextuality. The micro level analysis draws on Terry Eagleton’s (2007) approach to the analysis of poetic discourse in examining textual structure and discursive content and form in relation to context and meaning. This third level of analysis also includes consideration of the impact of reggae rhythms on lexical choices and language structures.
- ItemEarly signs of language shifting among recent Chinese immigrants in New Zealand(AUT University, 2008) Yu, SRecently, learning Chinese as foreign language (CFL) is becoming more and more popular around the world. However, promoting Mandarin among tens of millions of overseas Chinese has not been given enough attention. Research shows that language shift happens within three generations with minority immigrants (Fishman, 1991). Yet, less attention has been paid to how this process has actually happened. Based on the observation and monthly recorded data from eight families in Auckland, it has been found that, within 28 months after their arrival, the amount of Mandarin Chinese used at home is decreasing sharply; In terms of daily communication function, English is taking over Mandarin Chinese to express negation, greeting and gratitude; Parental interactive strategy also tends to be moving towards bilingual or even English. These are important signs of language shifting. Actions need to be taken for mother tongue maintenance.
- ItemEmpowering the apprentice academic: teaching writing at postgraduate level(Equinox Publishing Ltd, 2009) Sachtleben, A; Strauss, P; Turner, ETertiary institutions offer a variety of provision for postgraduate students aimed at the development of academic writing skills. This article using a series of workshops and individual tutorials designed specifically for students engaged in writing theses and exegeses in certain discipline areas in a large New Zealand university. It outlines and reflects on the process of identifying and analysing relevant information for the design, content and on-going development of the workshops. This includes supervisors’ expectations, students’ needs and feedback, as well as the features of published texts and unpublished theses and exegeses. The post-workshop tutorial provision is underpinned by the two key principles of dialogue to assist clarity of expression, and encouragement for students to express their own voice. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a discipline specific online paper for students in their first year of postgraduate study.
- ItemEnglish Language Teachers’ Beliefs and Concerns About Pronunciation Teaching in Uruguay(Oasis database, 2019-11-19) Chen, H-Y; Couper, GThis article reports on the concerns and issues which 28 experienced and well-qualified teachers expressed during individual semi-structured interviews with the researcher. It describes and discusses the participants’ views, pulling together themes representative of a wide range of perspectives on pronunciation teaching. Themes include: teacher anxiety about pronunciation and pronunciation teaching; external factors affecting pronunciation teaching such as curriculum and exam pressures, textbooks, and training received; approaches to teaching and error correction; activities and techniques; and issues related to literacy bias, listen-and-repeat, use of phonemic symbols and pronunciation goals and models. These findings, taken in conjunction with studies of teacher cognition in other contexts, serve to inform all those with an interest in English language teaching, whether they be researchers, teachers or teacher educators, curriculum designers or textbook writers.
- ItemEnglish phonology and pronunciation teaching [Book Review] [online](Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand, 2011) Couper, GraemeReview(s) of: English phonology and pronunciation teaching, by Rogerson-Revell, P. (2011), London: Continuum. ISBN: 978-0-8264-2403-7. 19.99 pounds. 352 pp.
- ItemForeign Language Teachers’ Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice(Taylor & Francis, 2013) Richards, H; Conway, C; Roskvist, A; Harvey, STeachers’ subject knowledge is recognised as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers’ subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling, prompting a demand for more foreign language teachers. A nationwide professional development programme for language teachers is building language teacher capacity to meet the demand. Participants on the programme have a range of language teaching subject knowledge. While some have extensive knowledge of their target teaching language but lack formal language teaching qualifications, others are generalist teachers with an interest in teaching a foreign language who are just beginning to develop their subject knowledge. This paper considers teachers’ subject knowledge, that is, their language proficiency. We report on the differences in the classroom practice of teachers with limited subject knowledge, compared with teachers with more extensive subject knowledge. The data were analysed against key aspects of teaching based on the work of Farrell and Richards. The analysis revealed a variance in the number of key aspects the teachers could manage and differences in their level of effectiveness in managing the key aspects. We highlight the importance for teachers with limited levels of target language proficiency of continuing to develop their subject knowledge in order to maximise the language-learning experience for their students.
- Item'French adds to its owner’s culture and general intelligence’. The politics of subject languages in New Zealand schools: the first fifty years(University College London, 2015-09-17) Harvey, SIn publicly monolingual, English dominant countries like New Zealand, why, how, when, where, which and for whom subject languages are taught in schools, are important questions. Unfortunately these questions rarely receive the breadth of engagement and discussion they deserve. They have become even more salient as New Zealand and like jurisdictions experience unprecedented levels of linguistic and cultural diversity due to migration. In addition globalisation has meant a greater need for citizens of all nations to be able to interact sensitively and productively with people from cultures that are quite different from their own. Learning additional languages (including indigenous languages) can be a key vehicle for promoting plurilingualism and intercultural competency in young people who will need these expanded communicative repertoires at home and abroad, in the future. New Zealand, however, has been slow to embrace the wider debates and demands of quality teaching of subject languages in schools. In order to better understand the situation this paper presents a Foucauldian ‘tracing back’ to examine why things are the way they are and to think about how they might be different. The research is part of a wider historical language policy project investigating the constitution of subject languages in schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Here, I draw on early New Zealand governmental and departmental policy records to examine how subject languages were discursively constructed in the fifty years after the Education Act of 1877 and what the key policy drivers were. Policy frames of colonisation, migration, indigeneity, class and geopolitics will be taken into account in the analysis. It is hoped that in describing the discursive construction of subject languages over time it will be possible to understand how contingent and open to change current policies and practices are.
- ItemGroup assessments: dilemmas facing lecturers in multicultural tertiary classrooms(Taylor and Francis, 2007) Strauss, P.; U, A.'Group is good, and group is good for curing all social ills' was the cynical observation of one of the lecturers in this study. Her comment reflects the uneasiness of lecturers at tertiary institutions with the notion that the educational advantages of group assessments far outweigh the disadvantages, and that such an approach promotes the integration of minority groups in multicultural universities. The dilemmas facing lecturers in multicultural tertiary classrooms are reflected on in this paper, when they adopt group assessment as a means of evaluation and highlight those challenges that often jeopardize the successful implementation of this type of practice.
- ItemHow much does parental language behaviour reflect their language beliefs in language maintenance?(John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010) Yu, SIt has been widely accepted that parental language beliefs play a crucial role in language maintenance. Studies show that Chinese immigrants are not exempted from language shift although they are frequently reported cherishing their language as an important part of their culture. This paper attempts to find out how parental language beliefs reflect their daily language behaviour. Eight recent Chinese migrant families had 60 minutes of conversation recorded each month for one calendar year. Their language use has been analyzed and compared with the information gathered from a home language use questionnaire. Results show that there is a substantial gap between parental language beliefs and their actual language behaviour. Although the parents state they strongly support mother tongue maintenance, within 28 months, the use of mother tongue had dropped significantly and there is very little evidence showing much effort from the parents to prevent this from happening. This could be either because they want their children to keep their first language but do not know how to do this, or, their language beliefs are different from their behaviour. This should raise methodological issues regarding how to interpret parental language beliefs properly in the research area.
- Item"I don't think we're seen as a nuisance" - The Positioning of Postgraduate Learning Advisors in New Zealand Universities(The Australasian Association of Writing Progams, 2013) Strauss, PNew Zealand universities host linguistically and culturally diverse cohorts of students. Many of these students, both first and second language speakers of English, struggle to achieve their potential because their academic language skills do not meet the requirements of the academy. Despite the acknowledged need to facilitate the improvement of all students’ language skills, in particular the ability to write clearly and cogently, he learning advisors at each university who are tasked with assisting this development are, on the whole, not held is in high esteem by the institutions they serve. This lack of regard makes it difficult for them to be effective in helping students reach their full potential. This article sought to capture the perspectives of postgraduate learning advisors at universities around New Zealand, which might have relevance for those based elsewhere. It concludes with some suggestions as to how advisors might strengthen their position and gain recognition for the contribution they make in the postgraduate sector.