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- ItemManaging heuristics as a method of inquiry in autobiographical graphic design theses(NSEAD/Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 12 JUN 2011) Ings, WThis article draws on case studies undertaken in postgraduate research at AUT University, Auckland. It seeks to address a number of issues related to heuristic inquiries employed by graphic design students who use autobiographical approaches when developing research-based theses. For this type of thesis, heuristics as a system of inquiry may provide a useful approach because it engages the researcher in a process that affirms imagination, intuition, subjectivity and forms of creative/critical/reflective problem solving. When employed as a framework, heuristics offers a rewarding but challenging system for connecting investigation with the researcher's personal experience. This article provides a discussion of heuristic's applications, limitations and advantages in relation to a number of recent postgraduate theses in graphic design. Through this, it seeks to provide a useful reflection on challenges and opportunities inherent within it as a system of inquiry.
- ItemFurther developments in the Taylor 'V' type VAWT concept(Pergamon Press, Elsevier, 1986) Robotham, A; Sharpe, DJ; Taylor, DA; Boyle, GAThis paper describes the development of the Taylor 'V' Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (V-VAWT) which was first described at the 1983 ISES Solar Energy Congress in Perth, Australia. The aerodynamic performance prediction model VAWTTAY has been enhanced in VAWTTAY6. Further wind tunnel tests have been carried out using two-bladed models, and two of these are described. These tests have produced results which have demonstrated that power control of the V-VAWT can be achieved by varying the pitch of the blade tips. The design of a prototype 5kW machine, that utilises lightweight, composite blades, and the the continued development of the V-VAWT concept is discussed.
- ItemA unified approach to multivariable discrete-time filtering based on the Wiener-theory(Institute of Mathematics ASCR, 1987) Barrett, JF; Moir, TJSeveral theories of discrete-time optimal filtering are in current use but the relationships between these theories is not always appreciated. By using a slightly modified form of the Wiener theory, a unification of the various methods is obtainable. In the present paper this approach is used to discuss in the multivariable case, instantaneous filtering, one-step delayed filtering, fixed-lag filtering, and prediction. It is shown that the one-step delay filter has a natural feedback structure related to the Kalman filter. The relation of the theory with the Hagander -Wittenma rk filter is also discussed.
- ItemReliance on correlation data for complexity metric use and validation(ACM, 1991-08) MacDonell, SGThis paper reports the results of an experiment to illustrate the hazards of using correlation data as the sole determinant for software metric use and validation. Three widely cited complexity metrics have been examined in relation to the frequency of software development errors.
- ItemRigor in software complexity measurement experimentation(Elsevier, 1991-10) MacDonell, Stephen GerardThe lack of widespread industry acceptance of much of the research into the measurement of software complexity must be due at least in part to the lack of experimental rigor associated with many of the studies. This article examines 13 areas in which previous empirical problems have arisen, citing examples where appropriate, and provides recommendations regarding more adequate procedures.
- ItemThe frequency and incidence of low-back-pain/sciatica in an urban-population(New Zealand Medical Association, 1991-10-09) Laslett, M; Crothers, C; Beattie, P; Cregten, L; Moses, AThe frequency, incidence and severity of low back pain was assessed by a random telephone survey of 314 urban New Zealanders. Relationships between the severity and frequency of low back pain and referred lower extremity pain and other variables such as occupation, recreation, age, sex and predominant working posture was analysed.Point incidence was 17.5%, weekly incidence 33.4%, yearly incidence 63.7% and total incidence 79%. Some 28.3% get frequent minor episodes and 6.4% get frequent severe episodes of low back pain. Nearly 50% suffer the initial episode before the age of 30 years.Of those suffering low back pain within the last seven days, 14.3% experience reference below the knee and the total incidence of below knee pain was 13.7%. Over half (51.6%) have pain that has lasted seven days or less, but a third have had pain for longer than seven weeks. No correlation between the incidence of low back pain and referred pain and occupational posture was found.In conclusion, this telephone survey established that the incidence of low back pain in New Zealand is similar to that reported in overseas studies. The survey could not establish differences in low back pain characteristics across different social groupings, nor could a relationship between occupational posture and low back pain be established.
- ItemVisual Impact Assessment - There's more to it than meets the eye!(Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, 1992-03-25) Robotham, AJ; Quilleash, PThe visual impact of a wind farm is one of the major causes of concern for all current U.K. wind farm projects. Often visual impact is the singlemost important issue on which a planning application is judged. A fair and honest assessment of the visual impact of a wind farm demands the co-operation of the developer, the planning authority, the public, and other interested parties. Visual impact assessment also demands that each individual involved in the planning process make their own judgement, because it is inadequate for this issue to be decided by a single individual.
- ItemProgress in the development of a video-based wind farm simulation technique(International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 1992-03-25) Robotham, AJThe progress in the development of a video-based wind farm simulation technique is reviewed. While improvements have been achieved in the quality of the composite picture created by combining computer generated animation sequences of wind turbines with background scenes of the wind farm site, extending the technique to include camera movements has proved troublesome
- ItemDeriving relevant functional measures for automated development projects(Elsevier, 1993-09) MacDonell, SGThe increasing use of computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools, fourth-generation languages (4GLs) and other similar development automation techniques, has reduced the impact of implementation methods and individual ability on development task difficulty. It has therefore been suggested that measures derived from software specification representations may provide a consistent basis for relatively accurate estimation of subsequent development attributes. To this end, this paper describes the development of a functional complexity analysis scheme that is applicable to system specification products, rather than to the traditional products of the lower-level design and construction phases.
- ItemAssessing the graphical and algorithmic structure of hierarchical coloured Petri net models(Australian Computer Society Digital Library, 1994) MacDonell, Stephen Gerard; Benwell, GLPetri nets, as a modelling formalism, are utilised for the analysis of processes, whether for explicit understanding, database design or business process re-engineering. The formalism, however, can be represented on a virtual continuum from highly graphical to largely algorithmic. The use and understanding of the formalism will, in part, therefore depend on the resultant complexity and power of the representation and, on the graphical or algorithmic preference of the user. This paper develops a metric which will indicate the graphical or algorithmic tendency of hierarchical coloured Pctri nets.
- ItemComparative review of functional complexity assessment methods for effort estimation(IEEE, 1994-05) MacDonell, SGBudgetary constraints are placing increasing pressure on project managers to effectively estimate development effort requirements at the earliest opportunity. With the rising impact of automation on commercial software development, the attention of researchers developing effort estimation models has recently been focused on functional representations of systems, in response to the assertion that development effort is a function of specification content. A number of such models exist; several, however, have received almost no research or industry attention. Project managers wishing to implement a functional assessment and estimation programme are therefore unlikely to be aware of the various methods or how they compare. This paper therefore provides this information, as well as forming a basis for the development and improvement of new methods
- ItemThe synthesis of five bar path generating mechanisms using genetic algorithms(IEE/IEEE, 1995) Connor, AM; Douglas, SS; Gilmartin, MJThis paper presents a methodology for the synthesis of multi-degree of freedom mechanisms using genetic algorithms. A Five-Bar mechanism is a 2-DOF system which requires two inputs to fully describe the output motion. In a hybrid mechanism, one of these inputs is supplied by a constant velocity (CV) motor and one is supplied by a programmable servo motor. Such configurations can have considerable savings in power consumption, when the armature inertia of the servo motor is low when compared to the load inertia. In the presented synthesis of such mechanisms the two inputs required are provided by the CV input and the desired position of the end effector. The genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimum link lengths and ground point positions to minimise a multi-criteria objective function. The criteria which contribute to the objective function value are the error between the actual path of the end effector and the desired path, the mobility of the mechanism, and the RMS value of the servo motor displacements
- ItemThe kinematic synthesis of path generating mechanisms using genetic algorithms(WIT Press, 1995) Connor, AM; Douglas, SS; Gilmartin, MJThis paper presents a methodology for the synthesis of path generating mechanisms using Genetic Algorithms GAs). GAs are a novel search and optimisation technique inspired by the principles of natural evolution and survival of the fittest . The problem used to illustrate the use of GAs in this way is the synthesis of a four bar mechanism to provide a desired output path.
- ItemThe South Pacific media:politics, ownership and control(Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (BCAS) / Critical Asian Studies, 1995-01-10) Robie, DTwo transnational media conglomerates own or control all the major circulation newspapers in the South Pacific. Through their subsidiaries Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation Ltd and French media magnate Robert Hersant's group in the French territories own five of the eight dailies in the region. The most recent daily, the National, began publishing in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in mid-November 1993. It is owned by a company associated with Malaysian senator Datuk Tiong Hiew King's family timber group, Rimbunan Hijau (RHG). Although the Tiong family is not in the big news media league of the Murdochs and Hersants, it has significant media interests, including the publishing of Malaysia's largest Chinese-language daily newspaper, Sin Chew Jit Poh.
- ItemSoftware forensics: old methods for a new science(IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996) MacDonell, SG; Aakjaer, A; Sallis, PJOver the past few years there has been a renewed interest in the science of software authorship identification; this area of research has been termed `software forensics'. This paper examines the range of possible measures that can be used to establish commonality and variance in programmer style, with a view to determining program authorship. It also describes some applications of these techniques, particularly for establishing the originator of programs in cases of security breach, plagiarism and computer fraud.
- ItemSoftware process engineering for measurement-driven software quality programs: realism and idealism(AUT University, 1996) MacDonell, SG; Gray, ARThis paper brings together a set of commonsense recommendations relating to the delivery of software quality, with some emphasis on the adoption of realistic perspectives for software process/product stakeholders in the area of process improvement. The use of software measurement is regarded as an essential component for a quality development program, in terms of prediction, control, and adaptation as well as the communication necessary for stakeholders’ realistic perspectives. Some recipes for failure are briefly considered so as to enable some degree of contrast between what is currently perceived to be good and bad practices. This is followed by an evaluation of the quality-at-all-costs model, including a brief pragmatic investigation of quality in other, more mature, disciplines. Several programs that claim to assist in the pursuit of quality are examined, with some suggestions made as to how they may best be used in practice.
- ItemEffort estimation for the development of spatial information systems(University of Otago, 1996) MacDonell, SG; Benwell, GLThe management and control of software processes has assumed increasing importance in recent times. The ability to obtain accurate and consistent indications of, for example, system quality, developer productivity and schedule projections is an essential component of effective project management. This paper focuses on these ‘traditional’ software engineering issues in relation to the development of spatial systems. In particular, techniques for development effort estimation are considered and a case study illustrating the application of one specific estimation method (Mark II function point analysis) is presented. Given its original basis in business information systems, the method is adjusted in order to account for (some of) the differentiating characteristics of spatial systems. The method is then retrospectively applied to a recently developed hazards analysis system. The effort estimate obtained is sufficiently close to the actual effort used in development to illustrate the potential of such a technique for project management in the spatial systems domain.
- ItemAlternatives to regression models for estimating software projects(AUT University, 1996) MacDonell, SG; Gray, ARThe use of ‘standard’ regression analysis to derive predictive equations for software development has recently been complemented by increasing numbers of analyses using less common methods, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic models, and regression trees. This paper considers the implications of using these methods and provides some recommendations as to when they may be appropriate. A comparison of techniques is also made in terms of their modelling capabilities with specific reference to function point analysis.
- ItemApplications of fuzzy logic to software metric models for development effort estimation(IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997) Gray, A; MacDonell, SSoftware metrics are measurements of the software development process and product that can be used as variables (both dependent and independent) in models for project management. The most common types of these models are those used for predicting the development effort for a software system based on size, complexity, developer characteristics, and other metrics. Despite the financial benefits from developing accurate and usable models, there are a number of problems that have not been overcome using the traditional techniques of formal and linear regression models. These include the nonlinearities and interactions inherent in complex realworld development processes, the lack of stationarity in such processes, over-commitment to precisely specified values, the small quantities of data often available, and the inability to use whatever knowledge is available where exact numerical values are unknown. The use of alternative techniques, especially fuzzy logic, is investigated and some usage recommendations are made.
- ItemKnowing the wheat from the weeds in noisy speech(International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 1997) Moir, T; Agaiby, HThis paper introduces a word boundary detection algorithm that works in a variety of noise conditions including what is commonly called the 'cocktail party' situation. The algorithm uses the direction of the signal as the main criterion for differentiating between desired-speech and background noise. To determine the signal direction the algorithm calculates estimates of the time delay between signals received at two microphones. These time delay estimates together with estimates of the coherence function and signal energy are used to locate word boundaries. The algorithm was tested using speech embedded in different types and levels of noise including car noise, factory noise, babble noise, and competing talkers. The test results showed that the algorithm performs very well under adverse conditions and with SNR down to -14.5dB.