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- ItemPacific Healthcare Workers and Their Treatment Interventions With Pacific Clients With Alcohol and Drug Issues in New Zealand(New Zealand Medical Association (NZMA), 2006) Robinson, G; Warren, H; Samu, K; Wheeler, A; Matangi Karsten, H; Agnew, FAim To provide an overview of the treatment interventions and practices of Pacific alcohol and other drugs (AOD) services in New Zealand. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 31 Pacific staff members from 13 services registered with the Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand National Directory. Issues around assessment, treatment interventions, outcome measures, service structure, and resources were explored. Results Overall, the practices in District Health Board (DHB) and Non-Government Organisation (NGO) Pacific services were found to be similar. The clinical concepts of assessment, treatment, and outcome measures were not clearly understood by Pacific workers. This was due to the lack of attention towards Pacific concepts and practices and values. A holistic approach was viewed to be the best approach when working with Pacific clients based on health belief models, such as the Fonofale model. Conclusions The findings of this study provide baseline data of treatment interventions and service practices of Pacific AOD services. There appears to be a Pacific way of working with Pacific clients. The most effective worker for Pacific people is someone who has sound knowledge of AOD, Pacific cultures and processes, and has the ability to integrate both Palangi (European) and Pacific knowledge to help the client.
- ItemResearching Women at Auckland University of Technology(Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia, 2006) Julich, SJ; Mansfield, J; Terrell, J; Garet, C; Jovanovic, LThis Report was first published as Researching Women at Auckland University of Technology by AUT Women on Campus, 2004 (ISBN: 1-877314-25-0). Research was conducted under the auspices of the Women on Campus Research Group. Authors: Shirley Jülich and Janet Mansfield; Editor: Jane Terrell; Research Assistants: Catherine Garet and Ljiljana Jovanovic. Original publication was sponsored by AUT Printsprint. In republishing Researching Women at Auckland University of Technology, ACCESS has been faithful to the original text making changes to format as required to fit ACCESS style. In this report, the Women on Campus research group aim to contextualise our own existence and image the performances of what we have named Researching Women within the coercive and self-regulatory system of tertiary education at Auckland University of Technology (AUT). The collection and analysis of data concerning research outputs by women through quantitative analysis in the first instance, has marked the terrain for asking further questions through different approaches. We examine researching women in both the global and the local context, highlighting in a preliminary way some of the barriers to the fullest participation of academic women. Knowledge about researching women is constructed as a site of contestation in a literature review that involves some critical processing and goes beyond an annotated account of the literature.
- ItemPragmatism and A-ontologicalism in a Science of Behavior(Joseph Cautilli for BOA Journals, 2006) Krägeloh, CUBehavior analysis is intimately linked to radical behaviorism, the philosophy of the science of behavior. Ontological discussions in the latter are easily generalized to the former, in which case behavior analysis is not judged by its scientific merit, but evaluated on the basis of philosophical matters. According to pragmatism, the meaning of discourse is to be understood in terms of its effect on behavior, and ontological assumptions are essentially prescriptions on how behavior analysis is to be conducted. Dissemination of behavior analysis would be greatly facilitated if such prescriptions are framed in a form that is as a-ontological as possible, so that fruitless discussions can be avoided that distract from the main purpose of behavior analysis – prediction and control of behavior.
- ItemMaternal Gambling Associated With Families' Food, Shelter and Safety Needs: Findings From the Pacific Island Families Study(Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto), 2007) Schluter, PJ; Bellringer, M; Abbott, MFrom a cohort study of Pacific families with children resident in Auckland (n = 983) we examine the association between maternal gambling over the previous 12 months and families' food, shelter, and safety needs. Overall, 666 (68%) mothers reported no gambling, 267 (27%) reported gambling but receiving no criticism, and 50 (5%) reported both gambling and receiving criticism. Compared to those with nongambling mothers, households with gambling mothers were more likely to have both food and housing issues related to a lack of money but no excess in physical intimate partner violence.
- ItemMaternal Nutrition and Four-alternative Choice(Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc, 2007-01-01) Davison, M; Krageloh, CU; Fraser, M; Breier, BHTwo groups of 10 male rats were trained to nose poke for food pellets at four alternatives that provided differing rates of pellet delivery on periodic schedules. After a fixed number of pellets had been delivered, 5, 10 or 20 in different conditions of the experiment, a 10-s blackout occurred, and the locations of the differing rates of pellet delivery were randomized for the next component. Two groups of rats were used: The AD group consisted of 10 rats born to dams that had normal (ad libitum) nutrition during pregnancy, whereas the 10 rats in the UN group were from dams exposed to reduced food availability during pregnancy. All pups received normal nutrition after birth. Choice between the nose poke alternatives quickly adapted when the rates of pellet delivery were changed in both groups, but there were no consistent differences in the speed of adaptation between the two groups. The generalized matching relation failed to describe the allocation of responses among alternatives, but the contingency-discriminability model provided a precise description of performance.
- ItemProblem Gambling - Pacific Islands Families Longitudinal Study: Final Report(Auckland University of Technology, 2008) Bellringer, M; Abbott, M; Williams, M; Gao, WBackground The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study has been following a cohort of Pacific children since the year 2000. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the pathways leading to optimal health, development and social outcomes for Pacific children and their families. Pacific peoples are at high risk for developing problem gambling (the highest risk of the ethnicities living in New Zealand) and have shown heterogeneous differences between the different Pacific cultures in relation to gambling. This highlights the need for significant further study in this area. The longitudinal cohort PIF study has offered a valuable and unique opportunity to study gambling and problem gambling within a Pacific family and child development context, allowing for sub-analyses of the major ethnic Pacific groups and the potential to begin identifying risk and protective factors in the development of problem gambling. In April 2006, the Gambling Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Health to conduct the research project Problem Gambling - Pacific Islands Families Longitudinal Study. The purpose of this project was to enhance and add value to the existing PIF study by incorporating a substantial gambling component in the six-year data collection phase. Methodology A range of gambling-related questions was incorporated into the interview questionnaire protocols for mothers and fathers of the cohort children at the six-year data collection phase. The questions related to gambling participation and to having problems because of someone else’s gambling, and included problem gambling screens (Problem Gambling Severity Index [PGSI] for mothers and fathers, and South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised [SOGS-R] for fathers only). All cohort parents (mothers and fathers) were invited to participate in the PIF study six-year assessment. In keeping with previous procedures, all participants were visited in their homes by gender- and ethnically-matched interviewers to complete the structured assessments. Results and discussion This study has significantly increased the knowledge around Pacific peoples’ gambling since the nature of the general population cohort has allowed for analyses to be performed by different Pacific ethnicities and other cultural and demographic variables, which is not usually possible in general population studies due to small Pacific participant sample sizes. Whilst the data in this report represent a cross-section in time, at the six-year data collection point for the cohort, the potential exists for gambling to continue to be a significant part of future data collection phases. This will allow for longitudinal analyses to explore the links between parental gambling and child development of gambling behaviours, as well as risk and protective factors for problem gambling amongst not only adults but also children as they progress through teenage years and into adulthood. It will also allow for exploration of changes over time in regard to gambling participation and problem gambling risk and protective factors. Gambling participation was lower amongst the participants in the cohort than would be expected though a bimodal distribution of gambling (low numbers of people gambling with those who do gamble reporting higher than average expenditure on gambling) was apparent, as was expected from previous national prevalence surveys. Thirty-six percent of all mothers and 30% of all fathers reported that they had gambled in the previous 12 months. Of the mothers and fathers who had gambled, Lotto was the form of gambling most played (89% mothers, 88% fathers) with much lower levels of participation in other forms of gambling. Gender differences were apparent for non-Lotto forms of gambling with mothers participating in Housie and Instant Kiwi gambling (both at 11%) and fathers participating in casino electronic gaming machine (20%), non-casino electronic gaming machine (15%) and Instant Kiwi (14%) gambling. The most preferred forms of gambling were Lotto (80% of gamblers) followed by Housie (9%) for mothers and Lotto (78%) followed by horse/dog race betting (6%) and sports betting at the TAB (5%) for fathers. Amongst those who gambled, four percent of mothers and 16% of fathers were classified as moderate risk or problem gamblers using the PGSI. Using the SOGS-R, 10% of fathers were classified as problem or probable pathological gamblers. Ethnicity appeared to be a key factor in mothers’ gambling but not for fathers. Tongan mothers were less likely to gamble than Samoan mothers; however, those who gambled were 2.4 times more likely to be classified as at risk/problem gamblers, indicating that Tongan mothers are at higher risk for developing problem gambling. Cultural orientation appeared to be related to gambling (in some cases, less gambling) both for mothers and fathers, though different orientations were associated with gambling for the different genders. Fathers who were in the higher total net weekly household income brackets (>$500) were more likely to gamble than fathers in the lower income bracket (<$501), whilst mothers with post-school qualifications were less likely to gamble (0.7 times) than mothers with no formal qualifications. Further gender differences were noted in terms of associations between gambling and health. For fathers both gambling and at risk/problem gambling were associated with psychological distress. Fathers who gambled were more likely to be perpetrators as well as victims of verbal aggression than fathers who did not gamble, with at risk/problem gambling also being associated with physical violence. These findings were not noted amongst mothers whereby at risk/problem gamblers were significantly less likely to perpetrate violence than non-problem gamblers. Not unexpectedly, smoking and alcohol consumption (particularly at higher/harmful levels) were associated with gambling (though not with at risk/problem gambling) both for mothers and fathers. In addition, mothers who drank alcohol were also more likely to have a weekly gambling expenditure in the upper quartile (≥$20) than mothers who did not drink, with increased frequency and amount of consumption associated with increased risk of higher gambling expenditure; this finding was not noted amongst fathers. In addition, a clear association was noted between higher (upper quartile) expenditure on gambling and being classified (PGSI) as a low risk/moderate risk/problem gambler with at risk/problem gambler classified mothers three times more likely, and at risk/problem gambler classified fathers six times more likely to spend in the upper quartile on gambling than non-problem gamblers. The problem gambling screens used (PGSI for mothers and fathers and SOGS-R for fathers only) showed very good internal consistency (reliability). There was good agreement between the PGSI and SOGS-R with 94% of fathers identified as problem gamblers by the SOGS-R also being classified as at risk/problem gamblers by the PGSI. In addition, questions related to lying about gambling and betting more than intended also associated well with the PGSI and SOGS-R within this Pacific cohort. The results suggest that the use of any of these problem gambling screens may be valid for use within a general Pacific population, though this would need to be further tested. Four percent of mothers and ten percent of fathers reported that they had experienced problems because of someone else’s gambling. The findings detailed in this report indicate that different gender and ethnic differences exist amongst Pacific people who should, therefore, not be considered as a homogeneous group. This has implications for service provision by organisations providing services for Pacific people as well as social marketing campaigns around gambling and problem gambling.
- ItemProblem Gambling Assessment and Screening Instruments: Phase One Final Report(Auckland University of Technology (AUT), 2008) Bellringer, M; Abbott, M; Volberg, R; Garrett, N; Coombes, RObjectives: This project was commissioned by the Problem Gambling Committee (PGC); subsequently the Ministry of Health assumed responsibility from the PGC. The primary objectives of the project were to: 1. Review the assessment and screening instruments currently used in New Zealand and internationally for the assessment of problem gamblers at the clinical level including by the telephone helpline 2. Following the review, to recommend a full set of screening and assessment instruments to be used in the clinical treatment of problem gamblers; selected instruments will be able to be used to monitor client progress in follow-up assessments currently undertaken at six monthly intervals 3. To pilot the recommended screening and assessment instruments in order to test the application of these screens in the New Zealand setting The research was divided into two phases. There was a particular focus on the screening instruments currently mandated for use by Ministry of Health funded problem gambling service providers, namely the South Oaks Gambling Screen - Three Month time frame (SOGS-3M), DSM-IV gambling criteria, Dollars Lost assessment and Control over Gambling assessment. Other screening tools used by the service providers were also considered. Additionally, the family/whanau checklist was reviewed.
- ItemLotteries Literature Review: Final Report(AUT University, 2008) Bellringer, M; Abbott, MThis report provides an overview of available literature relating to lotteries products, based on five specific question areas of focus: • To what extent do lotteries products in general and New Zealand lotteries products in particular appeal to problem and under-age gamblers? Do someproducts appeal more than others and, if so, can this be described? • What policies, programmes, codes of practice and corporate social responsibility guidelines have other lotteries adopted and is there any evidence about the impact these have had on problem and under-age gamblers? • What other lotteries have made existing or new products available on the internet or via electronic media and what impact, if any, have these had on problem and under-age gambling? • What is the role of lotteries marketing in shaping people’s views on participating in lotteries and about gambling in general? • What education programmes or materials have been developed to educate gamblers about responsible gambling and are there examples of ‘good practice’ in this area? The review was commissioned by the New Zealand Lotteries Commission in order that research gaps could be identified and recommendations made for research that the New Zealand Lotteries Commission could potentially contract. The review consisted of an extensive search of library and other electronic databases, personal specialist collections and grey literature. Professional and personal networks were also drawn on to locate unpublished reports and more especially, organisational documents relating to social responsibility and/or educational programmes and materials that might otherwise not have been easily accessible via the public domain. Relevant documentation was accessed and critically reviewed. Background and contextual information is provided in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 outlines the methodology used. The literature review (Chapter 3) comprises the main body of the report and is followed by the conclusion (Chapter 4), identified research gaps (Chapter 5) and recommendations for research (Chapter 6). Key points from the review follow, grouped under the five questions areas of focus.
- Item2008 International Gambling Conference - Looking Forward: New Directions in Research and Minimising Public Harm (Final Report)(Auckland University of Technology (AUT), 2008) Bellringer, M; Nahi, PThe 2008 International Gambling Conference Looking Forward: New Directions in Research and Minimising Public Harm took place on 21 to 23 February 2008 at the Crowne Plaza Hotel, Auckland. On 20 February 2008, two full-day Pre-Conference Workshops were held. In addition to keynote presentations from leading authorities, there were parallel sessions of papers and short workshops selected from proposals submitted by conference participants. For the second time (and in response to positive feedback from the 2006 conference) there was a ‘community voices’ session which was a forum for people who have been impacted by problem gambling, to speak out about their experiences. The Conference provided participants with a forum to examine new and emerging gambling technologies along with their various impacts and consequences. In addition, the papers and short workshops had an emphasis on measures to prevent and reduce harm associated with gambling, including harm from problem gambling. This included government policy and regulation, community engagement and advocacy, industry practice, public education, prevention and early and brief interventions, treatment and rehabilitation. The Pre-Conference Workshops focused on treatment of problem gamblers, and public health/social marketing approaches to reducing gambling harm. The Conference and Workshops brought together service providers and consumers, government officials and regulators, industry representatives, researchers and academics in gambling and related fields. The Conference was assisted by a grant from the Ministry of Health.
- ItemProblem Gambling Assessment and Screening Instruments: Phase Two Final Report(Auckland University of Technology (AUT), 2008-01-08) Bellringer, M; Abbott, M; Coombes, R; Garrett, N; Volberg, RObjectives: This project was commissioned by the Problem Gambling Committee (PGC); subsequently the Ministry of Health assumed responsibility from the PGC. The primary objectives of the project were to: 1. Review the assessment and screening instruments currently used in New Zealand and internationally for the assessment of problem gamblers at the clinical level including by the telephone helpline 2. Following the review, to recommend a full set of screening and assessment instruments to be used in the clinical treatment of problem gamblers; selected instruments should be able to be used to monitor client progress in follow-up assessments currently undertaken at various set intervals 3. To pilot the recommended screening and assessment instruments in order to test the application of these screens in the New Zealand setting The research was divided into two phases. There was a particular focus on the screening instruments currently mandated for use by Ministry of Health funded problem gambling service providers, namely the South Oaks Gambling Screen - Three Month time frame (SOGS-3M), DSM-IV gambling criteria, Dollars Lost assessment and Control over Gambling assessment. Other screening tools used by the service providers were also considered. Additionally, the family/whanau checklist for use with ‘significant others’ was reviewed.
- ItemNonparametric Computation of Survival Functions in the Presence of Interval Censoring(AUT University, 2008-09-01) Taylor, SMCensoring in time-to-event data poses a challenge in survival analysis. General interval censoring places an interval of doubt around each event time. Even when none of the event times are known exactly, useful analysis techniques are available. The nonparametric maximum likelihood (NPMLE) survival function provides a natural way to demonstrate how survival progresses over time. This talk covers recent research using constrained newton methods, mixture distributions and non-negative least squares algorithms to efficiently solve the problem of finding the NPMLE survival function.
- ItemProblem Gambling - Barriers to Help-seeking Behaviours (Final Report)(Auckland University of Technology (AUT), 2008-09-10) Bellringer, M; Pulford, J; Abbott, M; DeSouza, R; Clarke, DBackground: In New Zealand, as elsewhere, only a small proportion of problem gamblers seek formal help for their gambling problems. In particular, Pacific peoples appear to be significantly underrepresented relative to general population prevalence estimates from the 1999 national survey (Abbott & Volberg, 2000). There also appears to be male under-representation, especially in the case of new Maori clients, and an over-representation of females and Pakeha/Europeans seeking help for someone else’s gambling (Ministry of Health, 2006). Thus, increased understanding of the motivations and barriers for help-seeking behaviours is required. In March 2006, the Gambling Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Health to conduct the research project Problem gambling - Barriers to help seeking behaviours. The aim of the project was to describe and understand barriers and enablers to help-seeking, and the experiences when seeking help, of people experiencing gambling harm and of their families/whanau.
- ItemComputation of Nonparametric Survival Functions in the Presence of Interval Censoring(NZMASP, 2008-11-18) Taylor, SMThis talk will cover my research in developing an eﬃcient and robust algorithm for solving a particular problem in survival analysis. The problem is to ﬁnd the nonparametric maximum likelihood (NPMLE) survival function from time-to-event data where some or all of the observation times are censored by arbitrary intervals in the positive real line. The presence of this censoring makes the problem diﬃcult; since no closed form solution is possible, iterative optimisation techniques must be used. We have called our new algorithm the “Hierarchical Constrained Newton Method” (HCNM) because it is based on the existing CNM algorithm, enhancing it with a divide and conquer approach.
- ItemTwo Years On: Gambling Amongst Pacific Mothers Living in New Zealand(Fiji School of Medicine, 2009) Perese, LM; Bellringer, M; Williams, MM; Abbott, MResearch investigating the prevalence and correlates of Pacific peoples gambling within a New Zealand context is limited. This paper provides data about gambling activity from the two-year data collection point for a cohort of mothers within the longitudinal Pacific Islands Families study. The results indicate a number of consistencies and discrepancies between data collected at this time point and two years previously (six-week baseline data collection point). For example, at baseline, Samoans were the least likely to gamble and spent less money on gambling activities. Two years later, Samoans remained the least likely to gamble, but those who did gamble, were more likely to spend more money than other ethnicities. This article highlights the importance of this type of prospective study in examining the development of the risk and protective factors in relation to the development of problem gambling.
- ItemThe Healthy Steps Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Pedometer-based Green Prescription for Older Adults. Trial Protocol(BioMed Central, 2009) Kolt, GS; Schofield, GM; Kerse, N; Garrett, N; Schluter, PJ; Ashton, T; Patel, ABackground: Graded health benefits of physical activity have been demonstrated for the reduction of coronary heart disease, some cancers, and type-2 diabetes, and for injury reduction and improvements in mental health. Older adults are particularly at risk of physical inactivity, and would greatly benefit from successful targeted physical activity interventions. Methods/Design: The Healthy Steps study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a pedometer-based Green Prescription with the conventional time-based Green Prescription in increasing and maintaining physical activity levels in low-active adults over 65 years of age. The Green Prescription interventions involve a primary care physical activity prescription with 3 follow-up telephone counselling sessions delivered by trained physical activity counsellors over 3 months. Those in the pedometer group received a pedometer and counselling based around increasing steps that can be monitored on the pedometer, while those in the standard Green Prescription group received counselling using time-based goals. Baseline, 3 month (end of intervention), and 12 month measures were assessed in face-to-face home visits with outcomes measures being physical activity (Auckland Heart Study Physical Activity Questionnaire), quality of life (SF-36 and EQ-5D), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), blood pressure, weight status, functional status (gait speed, chair stands, and tandem balance test) and falls and adverse events (self-report). Utilisation of health services was assessed for the economic evaluation carried out alongside this trial. As well, a process evaluation of the interventions and an examination of barriers and motives for physical activity in the sample were conducted. The perceptions of primary care physicians in relation to delivering physical activity counselling were also assessed. Discussion: The findings from the Healthy Steps trial are due in late 2009. If successful in improving physical activity in older adults, the pedometer-based Green Prescription could assist in reducing utilisation of health services and improve cardiovascular health and reduction of risk for a range of non-communicable lifestyles diseases. Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000023550
- ItemFormative Investigation of the Links Between Gambling (Including Problem Gambling) and Crime in New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology (AUT), 2009-02-09) Bellringer, M; Abbott, M; Coombes, R; Brown, R; McKenna, B; Dyall, L; Rossen, FCrime (illegal behaviours) constitutes a continuum ranging from undetected, unreported, and unprosecuted crimes through to prosecuted, convicted and sentenced crimes; any of these may be associated with gambling/problem gambling. There may also be behaviours considered marginally illegal, for example welfare beneficiaries obtaining additional benefit and not disclosing that benefit money has been used for gambling, or business owners using business cash for gambling and not declaring cash as income for tax purposes. These behaviours are difficult to detect and even if detected may be considered morally socially unacceptable but not necessarily criminal and thus not reported to police. There may also be other behaviours, for example embezzlement of employer funds or stealing from family that are clearly criminal and may be detected, but are not likely to be reported to save embarrassment of either the victim or the perpetrator, or even to protect the perpetrator. In some instances, these crimes are not readily linked to gambling. Additionally, there are financial crimes to support gambling, situational crimes associated with gambling venues, violence associated with gambling and family/whanau crime associated with gambling. In November 2006, the Gambling and Addictions Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology, in collaboration with the Centre for Gambling Studies at the University of Auckland, was commissioned by the Ministry of Health to conduct the research project Problem gambling – Formative investigation of the links between gambling (including problem gambling) and crime in New Zealand. The purpose of this project was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the links between gambling and crime, with particular reference to unreported crime and the nature of the resulting harms experienced by individuals, families/whanau and communities.
- ItemEvaluation of Problem Gambling Intervention Services: Stages One and Two Final Report(Auckland University of Technology (AUT), 2009-03-01) Bellringer, M; Coombes, R; Garrett, N; Nahi, P; Pulford, J; Abbott, MBackground The Ministry of Health is responsible for the funding and coordination of problem gambling services and activities in New Zealand. This includes the funding of a national telephone helpline, two national face-to-face counselling services and several regional treatment providers which include Maori and Pacific specific services (Asian specific services are provided as a division of one of the national face-to-face treatment providers) (Ministry of Health, 2008a). From 2008, Ministry funded face-to-face problem gambling treatment providers have received specific training around Ministry expectations for service practice requirements (e.g. the types of intervention that will be funded and the processes expected within those interventions as well as for referrals for co-existing issues), and expectations around data collection, management and information submission to the Ministry. The Ministry has also identified specific sets of screening instruments to be used with clients, which vary depending on whether the client is receiving a brief or full-length intervention, or is a problem gambler or family/whanau member (‘significant other’) of a gambler. These screening instruments came into use in 2008, with different sets of instruments having been used previously. At the present time, the effectiveness of the current problem gambling treatment services is largely unknown, as is the optimal intervention process for different types of client. Whilst this sort of information can ultimately only be ascertained through rigorously conducted effectiveness studies (randomised controlled trials) (Westphal & Abbott, 2006), an evaluation (process, impact and outcome) of services could provide indications as to optimal treatment pathways and approaches for problem gamblers and affected others, as well as identifying successful strategies currently in existence and areas for improvement in current service provision. In September 2008, the Gambling and Addictions Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Health to conduct the research project Problem gambling: Evaluation of problem gambling intervention services. This project focused on four priority areas: 1.) Review and analysis of national service statistics and client data to inform workforce development, evaluation of Ministry systems and processes, and other related aspects 2.) Process and outcome evaluation of the effect of different pathways to problem gambling services on client outcomes and delivery 3.) Process and outcome evaluation of distinct intervention services 4.) Process and outcome evaluation of the roll-out and implementation of Facilitation Services
- ItemUnderstanding the Experience of Being Aged: What We Can Learn From Community-dwelling Elders(AUT University, 2009-07-05) Wright St Clair, VA; Kerse, NNo abstract.
- ItemThe Meaning of Being Aged and Being Maori(The Selwyn Foundation - Selwyn Centre for Ageing and spirituality, 2009-08-30) Wright St Clair, VThe human entity‟s co-existence in the world is fundamental to an ontological interpretation of the meaning of being (Heidegger, 1927/1962). Accordingly, being-in-the-world is always a mode of „Being-with-Others.‟ Even when not in the company of others, Being-in-the-world always has a relational quality. It implies a person is never fully „alone‟ in the world. Others are always „there‟ in a contextual way. Such understandings of Being-with will be influenced by a peoples‟ world view. This paper shares three stories told by Maori elders within the context of a hermeneutic phenomenological study undertaken on Auckland‟s North Shore. Each story illuminates something of the spiritual meanings of being aged and being Maori. The study itself aimed to understand the meaning of „being aged‟ through the everyday experiences of those who live in advanced age. Individual research conversations were conducted with fifteen community-dwelling elders; four Maori aged 71 to 93 and eleven non-Maori aged 80 to 97 years. The research conversations were focused on gathering the stories of particular everyday events as well as the person‟s reflections on aging. As a non-Maori researcher, cultural integrity of the text and the interpretations was enhanced through partnership with a Maori advisor. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of the everyday experiences of elder Maori are revealed as being-with as belonging, being-with as elder, and contributing to community.
- ItemA Theoretical Look at Biculturalism in Intercountry Adoption(Taylor & Francis, 2010) Scherman, RIntercountry adoption has been, and continues to be, a popular method of family formation worldwide, as well as a means of providing homes for children who would otherwise remain parentless. The popularity of this social welfare practice suggests that countless families continue to face the challenges of raising children whose ethnicities derive from two different ethnic backgrounds. Yet, virtually no research exists on the development of a bicultural ethnic identity in intercountry adoption. Instead, research has focused on the importance of birth-culture socialization, or the lack thereof. Faced with too little direct research on the subject, this paper synthesizes and critically reviews literature from the ethnic socialization, biracial, acculturation, and adoption fields. The aim was twofold: (1) extrapolate key elements of the literature that inform on the development of biculturalism in intercountry adoptions; and (2) identify gaps in the literature. Suggestions for future research and practice are offered.