Drivers of Ethical Consumption: Insights from a Developing Country
WEIRD countries (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic) consume well above the earth's capacity to produce. Non-WEIRD countries look on, with justifiable envy and want to increase their standard of living. Not only do we need to reduce consumption in WEIRD countries, we need also to understand the non-WEIRD citizens’ motivations to avoid/reduce future issues caused by over-consumption. This paper covers the breadth of phenomena of ethical consumption habits and their drivers in Pakistan. In-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with Pakistani respondents and analysed using laddering technique to uncover drivers of ethical consumption. Consumption choices in Pakistan are driven primarily by religiosity and frugality. While concern for health and environmental conservation is shared with WEIRD countries, underlying values (conformity and tradition) differ. These results emphasize the need to understand the drivers in developing societies and adjusting our marketing programs to improve societal wellbeing and environmental protection.