System-Wide Construction Waste and Their Connectivity to Construction Phases, Impacting 5M Factors and Effects: A Systematic Review
Abstract Purpose This review paper, using a systematic literature review (SLR) approach, aims to unravel the various system-wide waste in the construction industry and highlight the connectivity to construction phases, namely men, materials, machines, methods and measurement (5M) and impacting factors.
Design/methodology/approach This study used an SLR approach and examined articles published since the 2000s to explore the connectivity of system-wide waste to construction phases, 5M and impacting factors. The results are given in table forms and a causal loop diagram.
Findings Results show that the construction and demolition (CD) waste research carried out from various perspectives is standalone. The review identified ten types of system-wide waste with strong interlinks in the construction industry. The finding highlights connectivity between wastes other than material, labour and time and the wastes' impacting factors. Further, the review results highlighted the solid connectivity for construction phases, 5M, and impacting factors such as productivity (P), delay (D), accidents (A), resource utilisation (R) and cost(C).
Research limitations/implications SLR methodology limitations include not keeping in phase with the most updated field knowledge. This limitation is offset by choosing the range for literature review within the last two decades. This literature review may not have captured all published articles because the restriction of database access and search was based only on English. Also, fruitful articles hiding in less popular journals may not be included in the well-known database that was searched. Researcher bias of the authors and other researchers that authored the articles referred to is a limitation. These limitations are acknowledged.
Practical implications This article unravels the construction system-wide waste and the waste's interlinks, which would aid industry understanding and focus on eliminating the waste. The article highlights the connectivity of system-wide wastes to 5M, which would help better understand the causes of the waste. Further, the paper discusses the connectivity of system-wide waste, 5M and P, D, A, R and C that would aid the organisation's overall performance. The practical and theoretical implications include a better understanding of waste types to help capture better data for waste reduction and productivity improvement. The operating managers could use the tracking of wastes to compare estimated and actual resources at every process stage. This article on system-wide waste, 5M and P, D, A, R and C, relationships and their effects can theorize that the construction industry is more likely to identify clear root causes of waste now than previously. The theoretical implications include enhanced understanding for academics on connectivity between waste, 5M and P, D, A, R and C that the academics can use and expand to provide new insights to existing knowledge.
Originality/value For the first time, this article categorised and highlighted the ten types of waste in construction industries and the industries' connectivity to construction phases, 5M and impacting factors.