Detection of Adulteration in Red Meat Species Using Hyperspectral Imaging
This paper reports the performance of hyperspectral imaging for detecting the adulteration in red-meat species. Line-scanning images are acquired from muscles of lamb, beef, or pork. We consider the states of fresh, frozen, or thawed meat. For each case, packing and unpacking the sample with a transparent bag is considered and evaluated. Meat muscles are defined either as a class of lamb, or as a class of beef or pork. For visualization purposes, fat regions are also considered. We investigate raw spectral features, normalized spectral features, and a combination of spectral and spatial features by using texture properties. Results show that adding texture features to normalized spectral features achieves the best performance, with a 92.8% overall classification accuracy independently of the state of the products. The resulting model provides a high and balanced sensitivity for all classes at all meat stages. The resulting model yields 94% and 90% average sensitivities for detecting lamb or the other meat type, respectively. This paper shows that hyperspectral imaging analysis provides a rapid, reliable, and non-destructive method for detecting the adulteration in red-meat products.