Induction of Settlement in Larvae of the Mussel Mytilus Galloprovincialis Using Neuroactive Compounds
We investigated the effect on Mytilus galloprovincialis larval settlement, as well as the toxicity, of serial concentrations in filtered seawater of acetylcholine (AC), γ-aminobutiric acid (GABA); 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX); and the potassium ion in the form of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4). All the substances assayed induced larval settlement and peak responses were above 90% in exposures to 10− 2 mol L− 1 (M) AC, 10− 4 and 10− 5 M epinephrine, 10− 3 M GABA and 20, 30 and 40 mM KCl. The optimal concentration of K+ varied depending on the anionic component of the compound assayed, and peak settlement response to KCl was higher (100%) than that achieved with K2SO4 (69.7%). The estimated LC50 of the compounds assayed ranged from 9.4 × 10− 6 M (GABA) to 3.1 × 10− 2 M (KCl). GABA, IBMX and K2SO4 treatments displayed toxic effects in all the active concentrations. In contrast, AC 10− 5 M, epinephrine 10− 4 and 10− 5 M and KCl 20 mM treatments enhanced larval settlement without an acute short-term effect on mortality. These results provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms controlling settlement in M. galloprovincialis larvae, and yield promising outcomes for the mussel industry to find a reliable method to enhance larval settlement in hatcheries.