Effect of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Amino Acids, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Tamarillo Yoghurts
Laird’s Large tamarillo powder is high in protein (10%) essential amino acids (EAAs), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and polyphenols (0.6% phenolics plus anthocyanins) and fibre 25%. This study aimed to investigate, using a standardized static in vitro digestion model, the stability of amino acids and antioxidant capacity of polyphenols in yoghurt fortified with 5, 10 and 15% tamarillo powder either before (PRE) or after (POS) fermentation. Compared to plain yoghurt, the fruit polyphenols (rutinosides and glycosides) were retained and substantial increases in FEAAs (free essential amino acids), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity were observed particularly at the end of intestinal phase of digestion. Together with SDS-PAGE results, peptides and proteins in tamarillo yoghurts were more easily digested and therefore may be better absorbed in the small intestine compared to the control. TPC and antioxidant activity of fortified yoghurts increased significantly after in vitro digestion. Relatively high bioaccessibilty of chlorogenic acid and kaempferol-3-rutinoside in digested PRE samples was observed. The results suggest that the yoghurt matrix might protect some compounds from degradation, increasing bioaccessibility and in the small intestine allow increased absorption and utilization possible. Fortification would deliver intact polyphenols and fibre to the large intestine and improve gut health. Further research of acceptability, shelf life, and then trials for health effects should be implemented.