Emerging Intrinsic Therapeutic Targets for Metastatic Breast Cancer

Li, Jiawei
Goh, Eyleen LK
He, Ji
Li, Yan
Fan, Zhimin
Yu, Zhigang
Yuan, Peng
Liu, Dong-Xu
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Journal Article
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Breast cancer is now the most common cancer worldwide, and it is also the main cause of cancer-related death in women. Survival rates for female breast cancer have significantly improved due to early diagnosis and better treatment. Nevertheless, for patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer, the survival rate is still low, reflecting a need for the development of new therapies. Mechanistic insights into metastatic breast cancer have provided excellent opportunities for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Although high-throughput approaches have identified several therapeutic targets in metastatic disease, some subtypes such as triple-negative breast cancer do not yet have an apparent tumor-specific receptor or pathway to target. Therefore, exploring new druggable targets in metastatic disease is a high clinical priority. In this review, we summarize the emerging intrinsic therapeutic targets for metastatic breast cancer, including cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, the insulin/IGF1R pathway, the EGFR/HER family, the JAK/STAT pathway, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), TROP-2, Src kinases, histone modification enzymes, activated growth factor receptors, androgen receptors, breast cancer stem cells, matrix metalloproteinases, and immune checkpoint proteins. We also review the latest development in breast cancer immunotherapy. Drugs that target these molecules/pathways are either already FDA-approved or currently being tested in clinical trials.

PARP , TNBC , TROP-2 , breast cancer , chemoimmunotherapy , histone deacetylase inhibitor , immunotherapy , metastatic breast cancer , targeted therapy , therapeutic target , 31 Biological Sciences , Clinical Trials and Supportive Activities , Breast Cancer , Clinical Research , Cancer , Stem Cell Research , 5.1 Pharmaceuticals , 4 Detection, screening and diagnosis , 4.1 Discovery and preclinical testing of markers and technologies , 5 Development of treatments and therapeutic interventions , Cancer , 3 Good Health and Well Being , 06 Biological Sciences , 31 Biological sciences
Biology (Basel), ISSN: 2079-7737 (Print); 2079-7737 (Online), MDPI AG, 12(5), 697-. doi: 10.3390/biology12050697
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