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dc.date.accessioned2019-01-24T23:42:24Z
dc.date.available2019-01-24T23:42:24Z
dc.date.copyright2018en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationScandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. doi: 10.1111/sms.13375
dc.identifier.issn0905-7188en_NZ
dc.identifier.issn1600-0838en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/12194
dc.description.abstractIsometric training is used in the rehabilitation and physical preparation of athletes, special populations and the general public. However, little consensus exists regarding training guidelines for a variety of desired outcomes. Understanding the adaptive response to specific loading parameters would be of benefit to practitioners. The objective of this systematic review, therefore, was to detail the medium to long-term adaptations of different types of isometric training on morphological, neurological and performance variables. Exploration of the relevant subject matter was performed through MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases. English, full-text, peer-reviewed journal articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations investigating medium to long-term (≥3 weeks) adaptations to isometric training in humans were identified. These studies were evaluated further for methodological quality. Twenty-three research outputs were reviewed. Isometric training at longer muscle lengths (0.86-1.69%/week, ES = 0.03-0.09/week) produced greater muscular hypertrophy when compared to equal volumes of shorter muscle length training (0.08-0.83%/week, ES = -0.003-0.07/week). Ballistic intent resulted in greater neuromuscular activation (1.04-10.5%/week, ES = 0.02-0.31/week vs. 1.64-5.53%/week, ES = 0.03-0.20/week) and rapid force production (1.2-13.4%/week, ES = 0.05-0.61/week vs. 1.01-8.13%/week, ES = 0.06-0.22/week). Substantial improvements in muscular hypertrophy and maximal force production were reported regardless of training intensity. High-intensity (≥ 70%) contractions are required for improving tendon structure and function. Additionally, long muscle length training results in greater transference to dynamic performance. Despite relatively few studies meeting the inclusion criteria, this review provides practitioners with insight into which isometric training variables (e.g. joint angle, intensity, intent) to manipulate to achieve desired morphological and neuromuscular adaptations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.en_NZ
dc.languageengen_NZ
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sonsen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/sms.13375
dc.rightsCopyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Authors retain the right to place his/her pre-publication version of the work on a personal website or institutional repository. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in (please see citation) as it is not a copy of this record. An electronic version of this article can be found online at: (Please see Publisher’s Version).
dc.subjectEccentricen_NZ
dc.subjectFascicleen_NZ
dc.subjectForceen_NZ
dc.subjectMechanical loadingen_NZ
dc.subjectMuscleen_NZ
dc.subjectStiffnessen_NZ
dc.subjectStrengthen_NZ
dc.subjectTendonen_NZ
dc.titleIsometric Training and Long-term Adaptations; Effects of Muscle Length, Intensity and Intent: a Systematic Reviewen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/sms.13375en_NZ
dark.contributor.authorOranchuk, DJen_NZ
dark.contributor.authorStorey, AGen_NZ
dark.contributor.authorNelson, ARen_NZ
dark.contributor.authorCronin, JBen_NZ
pubs.elements-id351170
aut.relation.journalScandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sportsen_NZ


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