School of Sport and Recreation

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The School of Sport and Recreation has groups of academic researchers who conduct research in sport and activity-related areas. Research areas are:
  • Co-operative education
  • Outdoor education


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 295
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    A Novel Method to Assist Clinical Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury by Classifying Patient Subgroups Using Wearable Sensors and Exertion Testing: A Pilot Study
    (MDPI AG, 2023-05-26) McGeown, Joshua P; Pedersen, Mangor; Hume, Patria A; Theadom, Alice; Kara, Stephen; Russell, Brian
    Although injury mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may be similar across patients, it is becoming increasingly clear that patients cannot be treated as one homogenous group. Several predominant symptom clusters (PSC) have been identified, each requiring specific and individualised treatment plans. However, objective methods to support these clinical decisions are lacking. This pilot study explored whether wearable sensor data collected during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) combined with a deep learning approach could accurately classify mTBI patients with physiological PSC versus vestibulo-ocular PSC. A cross-sectional design evaluated a convolutional neural network model trained with electrocardiography (ECG) and accelerometry data. With a leave-one-out approach, this model classified 11 of 12 (92%) patients with physiological PSC and 3 of 5 (60%) patients with vestibulo-ocular PSC. The same classification accuracy was observed in a model only using accelerometry data. Our pilot results suggest that adding wearable sensors during clinical tests like the BCTT, combined with deep learning models, may have the utility to assist management decisions for mTBI patients in the future. We reiterate that more validation is needed to replicate the current results.
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    Alterations in Measures of Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, Hormonal Levels, Physiological Adaptations, and Psychometric Outcomes During Preparation for Physique Competition: A Systematic Review of Case Studies.
    (MDPI AG, 2023-05-08) Schoenfeld, Brad J; Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Piñero, Alec; Burke, Ryan; Coleman, Max; Mohan, Adam E; Escalante, Guillermo; Rukstela, Alexa; Campbell, Bill; Helms, Eric
    The present paper aimed to systematically review case studies on physique athletes to evaluate longitudinal changes in measures of body composition, neuromuscular performance, chronic hormonal levels, physiological adaptations, and psychometric outcomes during pre-contest preparation. We included studies that (1) were classified as case studies involving physique athletes during the pre-contest phase of their competitive cycle; (2) involved adults (18+ years of age) as participants; (3) were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (4) had a pre-contest duration of at least 3 months; (5) reported changes across contest preparation relating to measures of body composition (fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density), neuromuscular performance (strength and power), chronic hormonal levels (testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin), physiological adaptations (maximal aerobic capacity, resting energy expenditure, heart rate, blood pressure, menstrual function, and sleep quality), and/or psychometric outcomes (mood states and food desire). Our review ultimately included 11 case studies comprising 15 ostensibly drug-free athletes (male = 8, female = 7) who competed in various physique-oriented divisions including bodybuilding, figure, and bikini. The results indicated marked alterations across the array of analyzed outcomes, sometimes with high inter-individual variability and divergent sex-specific responses. The complexities and implications of these findings are discussed herein.
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    Implementing a Velocity-Based Approach to Resistance Training: The Reproducibility and Sensitivity of Different Velocity Monitoring Technologies.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-05-02) Jukic, Ivan; King, Andrew; Sousa, Colby A; Prnjak, Katarina; McGuigan, Michael R
    This study examined the reproducibility of GymAware, PUSH2 and Vmaxpro velocity monitoring devices during resistance training (RT). The sensitivity of these devices to detect the smallest changes in velocity that correspond to true changes in RT performance was also investigated. Fifty-one resistance-trained men and women performed an incremental loading (1RM) test, and two repetitions to failure tests with different loads, 72 h apart. During all repetitions, mean velocity (MV) and peak velocity (PV) were simultaneously recorded by two devices of each brand. Overall, GymAware was the most reliable and sensitive device for detecting the smallest changes in RT performance, regardless of the velocity metric used. Vmaxpro can be considered as an equivalent, cheaper alternative to GymAware for RT monitoring and prescription, but only if the MV metric is used. Caution should be exercised when using PUSH2 in practice due to their comparatively higher, unacceptable measurement error and generally low sensitivity to detect changes in RT performance. Collectively, these findings support the use of MV and PV from GymAware and MV from Vmaxpro devices for RT monitoring and prescription due to their low magnitudes of error; thus, allowing for the detection of meaningful changes in neuromuscular status and functional performance during RT.
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    Examining the Transport to School Patterns of New Zealand Adolescents by Home-to-School Distance and Settlement Types
    (Elsevier BV, 2023-05-01) Mandic, S; García Bengoechea, E; Hopkins, D; Coppell, K; Smith, M; Moore, A; Keall, M; Ergler, C; Sandretto, S; Wilson, G; Kidd, G; Flaherty, C; Mindell, JS; Stephenson, J; King, K; Spence, JC
    Background: Scholarship on active transport to school has largely focused on children, (large) urban areas, the umbrella term of “active transport” which considered walking and cycling together and without taking into account walking and/or cycling distance. This research examined adolescents’ patterns of transport to school in diverse settlement types and in relation to home-to-school distance in the Otago region of Aotearoa New Zealand. Methods: Patterns of transport to school by home-to-school distance, and across school locations, are described for a sample of 2,403 adolescents (age: 15.1 ± 1.4 years; 55% females) attending 23 out of 27 schools in large urban areas (n = 1,309; 11 schools), medium urban areas (n = 265; three schools), small urban areas (n = 652; four schools) and rural settings (n = 177; five schools). Empirical data were collected through an online survey, in which adolescents reported sociodemographic characteristics, travel to school, and perceptions of walking and cycling. Home-to-school distance was measured on the shortest route determined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based network analysis. Results: Transport to school patterns differed significantly by home-to-school distance and across settlement types. Profiles of different transport user groups showed significant variability in sociodemographic characteristics, family factors, average distance to school, self-reported physical activity, and perceived health. Conclusions: Initiatives to promote active transport and reduce reliance on car transport to school, whether to improve health and the environment or to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, need to pay closer attention to the settlement types, distance to school, and characteristics of different transport user modes.
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