- ItemAuthors’ Reply to Julian Alcazar et al.: “Exploring the Low Force-High Velocity Domain of the Force–Velocity Relationship in Acyclic Lower-Limb Extensions”(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-11-28) Rivière, Jean Romain; Morin, Jean‑Benoît; Bowen, Maximilien; Cross, Matt R; Messonnier, Laurent A; Samozino, Pierre
- ItemA Preliminary Investigation into the Frequency Dose Effects of High-Intensity Functional Training on Cardiometabolic Health(Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2023-12-01) Smith, LE; Van Guilder, GP; Dalleck, LC; Lewis, NR; Dages, AG; Harris, NKThe objective of this study was to explore the effects of three weekly frequency doses of high-intensity functional training (HIFT) on an array of cardiometabolic markers in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twenty-one men and women, randomized into one (HIFT1), two (HIFT2), or three (HIFT3) days per week of HIFT, completed 3-weeks of familiarization plus a 12-week progressive training program. Pre-and post-intervention, several cardiometabolic, body composition, oxygen con-sumption, metabolic syndrome severity, and perceptions of fitness measurements were assessed. Additionally, an exercise enjoyment survey was administered post-intervention. A Cohen’s d was used to demonstrate within-group change effect size. Alt-hough this study was not fully powered, a one-way and two-way ANOVA were used to compare the dose groups to provide provisional insights. No differences were found when frequency dose groups were compared. Many cardiometabolic, body composition, and fitness improvements were seen within each group, with clinically meaningful improvements in the metabolic syndrome severity score (MSSS) (HIFT1:-0.105, d = 0.28; HIFT2:-0.382, d = 1.20; HIFT3:-0.467, d = 1.07), waist circumference (HIFT1:-4.1cm, d = 3.33; HIFT2:-5.4cm, d = 0.89; HIFT3:-0.7cm, d = 0.20), and blood glucose (HIFT1:-9.5mg/dL, d = 0.98; HIFT2:-4.9mg/dL, d = 1.00; HIFT3:-1.7mg/dL, d = 0.23). All three groups similarly reported high exercise enjoyment and likeliness to continue after the intervention. In conclusion, HIFT performed once, twice, or thrice a week elicits improvements in MetS and is considered enjoyable. HIFT, even at a low weekly dose, therefore represents a potential strategy to reduce the global MetS burden.
- ItemIs Bodybuilding a Sport?(Informa UK Limited, 2023-07-23) Kind, Adrian; Helms, Eric RSince its beginnings, modern bodybuilding has been accompanied by the background issue of whether it should be considered a sport. The problem, culminating in its provisional acceptance as a sport by the International Olympic Committee, was later retracted. The uncertainty of whether bodybuilding is a sport or not seems to linger. Addressing this issue, Aranyosi (2018) provided an account to determine the status of bodybuilding as a sport that arrives at the negative answer: bodybuilding is not a sport but rather a form of artistic presentation. In this paper, we disagree with Aranyosi. We argue that by the standards he presents in his first argument, bodybuilding should be considered a sport. Further, we argue that his alternative approach on how to evaluate a discipline as more sport- or art-like on a spectrum, is not a valid basis to make such a judgment regarding bodybuilding. Further, even if his spectrum was modified to enable such a judgment, again it would result in bodybuilding being evaluated as a sport. Therefore, we conclude that everyone who accepts Aranyosi´s (or any less restrictive) requirements to decide whether bodybuilding is a sport, has to consider bodybuilding as a sport or refrain from making claims about its status.
- ItemSkeletal Muscle Proteins Involved in Fatty Acid Transport Influence Fatty Acid Oxidation Rates Observed During Exercise(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-07-14) Maunder, Ed; Rothschild, Jeffrey A; Fritzen, Andreas M; Jordy, Andreas B; Kiens, Bente; Brick, Matthew J; Leigh, Warren B; Chang, Wee-Leong; Kilding, Andrew ESeveral proteins are implicated in transmembrane fatty acid transport. The purpose of this study was to quantify the variation in fatty acid oxidation rates during exercise explained by skeletal muscle proteins involved in fatty acid transport. Seventeen endurance-trained males underwent a (i) fasted, incremental cycling test to estimate peak whole-body fatty acid oxidation rate (PFO), (ii) resting vastus lateralis microbiopsy, and (iii) 2 h of fed-state, moderate-intensity cycling to estimate whole-body fatty acid oxidation during fed-state exercise (FO). Bivariate correlations and stepwise linear regression models of PFO and FO during 0-30 min (early FO) and 90-120 min (late FO) of continuous cycling were constructed using muscle data. To assess the causal role of transmembrane fatty acid transport in fatty acid oxidation rates during exercise, we measured fatty acid oxidation during in vivo exercise and ex vivo contractions in wild-type and CD36 knock-out mice. We observed a novel, positive association between vastus lateralis FATP1 and PFO and replicated work reporting a positive association between FABPpm and PFO. The stepwise linear regression model of PFO retained CD36, FATP1, FATP4, and FABPpm, explaining ~87% of the variation. Models of early and late FO explained ~61 and ~65% of the variation, respectively. FATP1 and FATP4 emerged as contributors to models of PFO and FO. Mice lacking CD36 had impaired whole-body and muscle fatty acid oxidation during exercise and muscle contractions, respectively. These data suggest that substantial variation in fatty acid oxidation rates during exercise can be explained by skeletal muscle proteins involved in fatty acid transport.
- ItemDoes Lateral Banking and Radius Affect Well-Trained Sprinters and Team-Sports Players During Bend Sprinting?(Taylor and Francis Group, 2023-06-17) White, Jonathan; Wilson, Cassie; von Lieres Und Wilkau, Hans; Wyatt, Hannah; Weir, Gillian; Hamill, Joseph; Irwin, Gareth; Exell, Timothy AThis study investigated the short-term responses of step characteristics in sprinters and team-sports players under different bend conditions. Eight participants from each group completed 80 m sprints in four conditions: banked and flat, in lanes two and four (L2B, L4B, L2F, L4F). Groups showed similar changes in step velocity (SV) across conditions and limbs. However, sprinters produced significantly shorter ground contact times (GCT) than team sports players in L2B and L4B for both left (0.123 s vs 0.145 s and 0.123 s vs 0.140 s) and right steps (0.115 s vs 0.136 s and 0.120 s vs 0.141 s) (p > 0.001-0.029; ES = 1.15-1.37). Across both groups, SV was generally lower in flat conditions compared to banked (Left: 7.21 m/s vs 6.82 m/s and Right: 7.31 m/s vs 7.09 m/s in lane two), occurring due to reduced step length (SL) rather than step frequency (SF), suggesting that banking improves SV via increased SL. Sprinters produced significantly shorter GCT in banked conditions that led to non-significant increases in SF and SV, highlighting the importance of bend sprinting specific conditioning and training environments representative of indoor competition for sprint athletes.