School of Sport and Recreation

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The School of Sport and Recreation has groups of academic researchers who conduct research in sport and activity-related areas. Research areas are:
  • Co-operative education
  • Outdoor education


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 385
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    Gym and Fitness Injuries Amongst Those Aged 16–64 in New Zealand: Analysis of Ten Years of Accident Compensation Corporation Injury Claim Data.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-05-14) Cuthbertson-Moon, Melissa; Hume, Patria A; Wyatt, Hannah E; Carlson, Isaac; Hastings, Bryce
    BACKGROUND: To provide epidemiological data for minor and moderate-to-serious injury claims for gym and fitness related injuries amongst those aged 16-64 in New Zealand, to inform the development of an injury prevention program. METHODS: Retrospective analytical review of gym and fitness related injury entitlement minor and moderate- to-serious Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2020. Data were analysed by cause of injury, geographical region, sex, age, body site and injury type. Qualitative analysis of free text describing the activity causing the injury was conducted. RESULTS: Over the ten-year period, 16-64 year olds made 345,254 injury claims, costing ACC NZ$241,298,275 in treatment charges. Soft tissue injuries were the most prevalent making up 96% (331,343) of all claims and 88% (NZ$213,049,197) of the total charges. Strenuous movement with lifting (n = 154,467, 47%), strenuous movement without lifting (n = 84,469, 25%), impact/contact with object (n = 39,610, 12%) and impact/contact with ground (n = 25,351, 8%) were the top four mechanisms resulting in injury, accounting for 92% of soft tissue injuries. Males and females aged 21 to 30 years old were most frequently injured. The four most injured body sites (lower back/spine, shoulder, knee, neck/back of head) accounted for 63% of injuries in females, and 65% in males. CONCLUSIONS: The most common cause of injury from gym and fitness activity claims in 16-64 year olds in New Zealand was lifting/carrying/strain resulting in lower back/spine and shoulder (including clavicle/blade) soft tissue injuries. Soft tissue injuries accounted for 96% of the total claims. Males and females aged 21 to 30 years old were most frequently injured age group.
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    Implementing the Technology Shift From 2D to 3D: Insights and Suggestions for Umpire Educators
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-26) Kaiser, Keone; Walters, Simon; Sheehy, Kevin; Murray, Eoin; Spencer, Kirsten
    Effective methods to improve decision-making in sports officiating, particularly with the current and ongoing issues with in-person training, means new remote training methods must be developed. Traditional training of officials occurs primarily as “in-person coaching” at matches, with supporting training manuals and 2D broadcast analysis. However, live matches present difficulties in implementation, while manuals and 2D broadcast videos may not sufficiently ensure learning transfers to real situations. Due to its ease of use, first-person perspective, and ability to analyze live and post-event remotely, 360° virtual reality video technology (360° VR) offers an alternative technological solution for developing decision-making accuracy for sports officials across multiple sports. This study sought to assess the ecological validity (EV) of using 360° VR technology to enable remote teaching of decision-making. Decision-making quality and accuracy in softball umpires were similar when using 360° VR and the traditional method (2D broadcast footage), but 360° VR received significantly higher EV values than the 2D broadcast videos. In addition, interviewed participants expressed excitement about using 360° VR to augment traditional umpiring manuals and rulebooks. The results show that 360° VR has the potential to enhance or replace traditional remote learning methods for decision-making in softball umpires and allow softball learning to reach a much wider umpire audience.
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    Skating into the Unknown: Scoping the Physical, Technical, and Tactical Demands of Competitive Skateboarding
    (Springer, 2024-05-15) Cross, Matthew; Diewald, Shelley; Cronin, John; Neville, Jono; Read, David
    Background The inclusion of skateboarding in the Olympics suggests that athletes and coaches are seeking ways to enhance their chances of succeeding on the world stage. Understanding what constitutes performance, and what physical, neuromuscular, and biomechanical capacities underlie it, is likely critical to success. Objective The aim was to overview the current literature and identify knowledge gaps related to competitive skateboarding performance and associated physical, technical, and tactical demands of Olympic skateboarding disciplines. Methods A systematic scoping review was performed considering the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Extension for Scoping Reviews) guidelines. Data sources were MEDLINE (Ovid), Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed. We included all peer-reviewed literature after 1970 describing the physiological, neuromuscular, biomechanical, and/or tactical aspects of skateboarding. Results Nineteen original articles explored the physiological (n = 9), biomechanical (n = 8), and technical (n = 10) demands of skateboarding. No research explored the tactical demands of competition. Moreover, although competitive males (n = 2 studies) and females (n = 1 study) were recruited as participants, no research directly related skateboarding demands to performance success in competitive environments. Conclusions Ultimately, what constitutes and distinguishes competitive skateboarding is unexplored. There is some evidence indicating aspects of the sport require flexibility and elevated and fast force output of the lower limbs, which may be valuable when attempting to maximise ollie height. Nonetheless, a lack of ecological validity, such as using static ollie tests as opposed to rolling, restricted our ability to provide practical recommendations, and inconsistency of terminology complicated delineating discipline-specific outcomes. Future researchers should first look to objectively identify what skaters do in competition before assessing what qualities enable their performance.
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    The Impact of CREBRF rs373863828 Pacific-Variant on Infant Body Composition
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-04-17) Amitrano, F; Krishnan, M; Murphy, R; Okesene-Gafa, KAM; Ji, M; Thompson, JMD; Taylor, RS; Merriman, TR; Rush, E; McCowan, M; McCowan, LME; McKinlay, CJD
    In Māori and Pacific adults, the CREBRF rs373863828 minor (A) allele is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) but reduced incidence of type-2 and gestational diabetes mellitus. In this prospective cohort study of Māori and Pacific infants, nested within a nutritional intervention trial for pregnant women with obesity and without pregestational diabetes, we investigated whether the rs373863828 A allele is associated with differences in growth and body composition from birth to 12–18 months’ corrected age. Infants with and without the variant allele were compared using generalised linear models adjusted for potential confounding by gestation length, sex, ethnicity and parity, and in a secondary analysis, additionally adjusted for gestational diabetes. Carriage of the rs373863828 A allele was not associated with altered growth and body composition from birth to 6 months. At 12–18 months, infants with the rs373863828 A allele had lower whole-body fat mass [FM 1.4 (0.7) vs. 1.7 (0.7) kg, aMD −0.4, 95% CI −0.7, 0.0, P = 0.05; FM index 2.2 (1.1) vs. 2.6 (1.0) kg/m2 aMD −0.6, 95% CI −1.2,0.0, P = 0.04]. However, this association was not significant after adjustment for gestational diabetes, suggesting that it may be mediated, at least in part, by the beneficial effect of CREBRF rs373863828 A allele on maternal glycemic status.
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    Fueling for and Recovering from Resistance Training: The Peri-Workout Nutrition Practices of Competitive Powerlifters
    (Elsevier BV, 2024-02-07) King, Andrew; Kwan, Kedric; Jukic, Ivan; Zinn, Caryn; Helms, Eric
    Purpose: Nutrient timing is a concept that emphasizes the intentional ingestion of whole or fortified foods, and dietary supplements, to adequately fuel for, and recover from, acute and chronic exercise. The nutrition strategies used by powerlifters around training sessions have not, to our knowledge, been previously investigated. This study explored the self-reported periworkout (before, during, and after) nutrition practices of competitive powerlifters, including what, why, and information source that informed practice, with comparison to current sport nutrition guidelines. Methods: Actively competing male (n = 240) and female (n = 65) powerlifters completed a cross-sectional online survey of self-reported periworkout nutrition practices in the pre-, intra-, and postexercise periods, fasted training, and supplementation. Data are presented as the number (n) and percentage (%) of all powerlifters practicing a given strategy followed by a % of responses reporting various practices or beliefs within this strategy. Categorical subgroups (sex, age, and weight class; and competitive caliber) were analyzed with a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and denoted where significant (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Most powerlifters reported paying specific attention to nutrition practices in the pre-exercise period (n = 261; 85.6%) by ingesting more carbohydrate (CHO) rich foods (n = 234; 89.6%) for the purpose of assisting in training performance (n = 222; 85.1%). Most powerlifters reported intraexercise nutrition strategies (n = 211; 69.2%), of which most included ingesting more CHO rich foods (n = 159; 74.5%) for the purpose of feeling less hungry and/or boosting energy levels during training (n = 129; 61.1%). Most powerlifters reported paying attention to postexercise nutrition (n = 244; 80%), by ingesting more protein rich foods (n = 182; 74.6%) for the purpose of recovering better for the whole day (n = 152; 62.3%) and enhancing the benefits of training (n = 149; 61.1%). Most powerlifters did not complete training sessions in the fasted state (n = 262; 85.9%). Most powerlifters reported paying attention to supplementation before training (n = 237; 77.7%), of which preworkout formulas (n = 137; 57.8%), energy drinks (n = 101; 42.6%), creatine (n = 88; 37.1%), and caffeine pills (n = 70; 29.5%) were most reported. Supplementation was used to assist in training performance (n = 197; 83.1%) and increase wakefulness/alertness (n = 183; 77.2%). Males reported more often than females that they informed multiple elements of their nutrition practices with the information they read or watched somewhere (P = 0.002–0.012). Conclusion: The periworkout nutrition practices used by competitive powerlifters followed current sport nutrition guidelines, by using CHO sources to fuel for training and ensuring the provision of protein postexercise. Competitive powerlifters may wish to exert caution with supplementation, as there is a risk of harm or inadvertent doping.
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