NISAN - the National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences

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Institute Director: Professor Valery Feigin

Deputy Director: Associate Professor Alice Theadom



The National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences (NISAN) conducts epidemiological studies and clinical trials to improve health and outcomes in people with major neurological disorders. Current research programmes focus on:
  • Stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Neuromuscular disorders
Research with this aim is unique in New Zealand and NISAN is a hub for information sharing and developing a cohesive network between existing research and clinical groups with interests in:
  • Neuroepidemiology
  • Public health
  • Neurorehabilitation
  • Neuropsychology
  • Biostatistics

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 100
  • Item
    Global Stroke Statistics 2023: Availability of Reperfusion Services Around the World
    (SAGE Publications, 2023-10-18) Kim, Joosup; Olaiya, Muideen T; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Norrving, Bo; Bosch, Jackie; Aguiar de Sousa, Diana; Christensen, Hanne; Ranta, Anna; Donnan, Geoffrey; Feigin, Valery L; Martins, Sheila; Schwamm, Lee; Werring, David; Howard, George; Owolabi, Mayowa; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Mikulik, Robert; Thayabaranathan, Tharshanah; Cadilhac, Dominique
    BACKGROUND: Disparities in the availability of reperfusion services for acute ischaemic stroke are considerable globally, and require urgent attention. Contemporary data on the availability of reperfusion services in different countries provide the necessary evidence to prioritise where access to acute stroke treatment is needed. AIMS: To provide a snapshot of published literature on the provision of reperfusion services globally, including when facilitated by telemedicine or mobile stroke unit services. Methods: We searched PubMed to identify original papers, published up to January 2023, with the most recent, representative and relevant data for each country. Keywords included thrombolysis and telemedicine. We also screened reference lists of review papers, citation history of papers, and the grey literature. The information is provided as a narrative summary. RESULTS: Of 11,222 potentially eligible papers retrieved, 148 were included for review following de-duplications and full text review. Data were also obtained from national stroke clinical registry reports, Registry of Stroke Care Quality (RES-Q) and Pre-hospital Stroke Treatment Organization (PRESTO) repositories, and other national sources. Overall, we found evidence of the provision of intravenous thrombolysis services in 70 countries (6463% high-income countries (HICs)) and endovascular thrombectomy services in 33 countries (68% HICs), corresponding to far less than half of the countries in the world. Recent data (from 2019 or later) were lacking for 35 of 67 countries with known year of data (52%). We found published data on 74 different stroke telemedicine programs (93% in HICs) and 14 active mobile stroke unit pre-hospital ambulances services (80% in HICs) around the world. CONCLUSION: Despite remarkable advancements in reperfusion therapies for stroke, it is evident from available data that their availability remains unevenly distributed globally. Contemporary published data on availability of reperfusion services remain scarce, even in HICs, thereby making it difficult to reliably ascertain current gaps in the provision of this vital acute stroke treatment around the world.
  • Item
    Burden of Disease Scenarios for 204 Countries and Territories, 2022–2050: A Forecasting Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    (Elsevier BV, 2024) Vollset, Stein Emil; Ababneh, Hazim S; Abate, Yohannes Habtegiorgis; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasgholizadeh, Rouzbeh; Abbasian, Mohammadreza; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd Al Magied, Abdallah HA; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Abdelkader, Atef; Abdelmasseh, Michael; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Abdi, Parsa; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Abdoun, Meriem; Abdullahi, Auwal; Abebe, Mesfin; Abiodun, Olumide; Aboagye, Richard Gyan; Abolhassani, Hassan; Abouzid, Mohamed; Aboye, Girma Beressa; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Absalan, Abdorrahim; Abualruz, Hasan; Abubakar, Bilyaminu; Abukhadijah, Hana Jihad Jihad; Addolorato, Giovanni; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adetunji, Charles Oluwaseun; Adetunji, Juliana Bunmi; Adeyeoluwa, Temitayo Esther; Adha, Rishan; Adhikary, Ripon Kumar; Adnani, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah; Adzigbli, Leticia Akua; Afrashteh, Fatemeh; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Afzal, Saira; Agbozo, Faith; Agodi, Antonella; Agrawal, Anurag; Agyemang-Duah, Williams; Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku; Ahlstrom, Austin J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Ahmad, Firdos; Ahmad, Muayyad M; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ahmad, Shahzaib; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ahmed, Ayman; Ahmed, Haroon; Ahmed, Safoora; Ahmed, Syed Anees; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Akkaif, Mohammed Ahmed; Akrami, Ashley E; Akter, Ema; Al Awaidy, Salah; Al Hasan, Syed Mahfuz; Al Mosa, Amjad S; Al Ta'ani, Omar; Al Zaabi, Omar Ali Mohammed; Alahdab, Fares; Alajlani, Muaaz M; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan; Alalalmeh, Samer O; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alam, Zufishan; Al-amer, Rasmieh Mustafa; Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour; Alanzi, Turki M; Albakri, Almaza; Aldhaleei, Wafa A; Aldridge, Robert W; Alemohammad, Seyedeh Yasaman; Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Al-Gheethi, Adel Ali Saeed; Al-Hanawi, Mohammed Khaled; Ali, Abid; Ali, Amjad; Ali, Iman; Ali, Mohammed Usman; Ali, Rafat; Ali, Syed Shujait Shujait; Ali, Victor Ekoche; Ali, Waad; Al-Ibraheem, Akram; Alicandro, Gianfranco; Alif, Sheikh Mohammad; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Alla, François; Almazan, Joseph Uy; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Alqutaibi, Ahmed Yaseen; Alrawashdeh, Ahmad; Alrousan, Sahel Majed; Al-Sabah, Salman Khalifah; Alsabri, Mohammed A; Altaany, Zaid; Al-Tammemi, Ala'a B; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Altirkawi, Khalid A; Aluh, Deborah Oyine; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Al-Wardat, Mohammad Sami; Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed; Aly, Hany; Alyahya, Mohammad Sharif; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Zyoud, Walid; Amani, Reza; Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Amindarolzarbi, Alireza; Amiri, Sohrab; Amirzade-Iranaq, Mohammad Hosein; Amu, Hubert; Amugsi, Dickson A; Ancuceanu, Robert; Anderlini, Deanna; Anderson, David B; Andrade, Pedro Prata; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Andrei, Tudorel; Andrews, Erick Adrian; Anil, Abhishek; Anil, Sneha; Anoushiravani, Amir; Antony, Catherine M; Antriyandarti, Ernoiz; Anuoluwa, Boluwatife Stephen; Anvari, Saeid; Anyasodor, Anayochukwu Edward; Appiah, Francis; Aquilano, Michele; Arab, Juan Pablo; Arabloo, Jalal; Arafa, Elshaimaa A; Arafat, Mosab; Aravkin, Aleksandr Y; Ardekani, Ali; Areda, Demelash; Aregawi, Brhane Berhe; Aremu, Abdulfatai; Ariffin, Hany; Arkew, Mesay; Armani, Keivan; Artamonov, Anton A; Arumugam, Ashokan; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ashbaugh, Charlie; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin; Atorkey, Prince; Atout, Maha Moh'd Wahbi; Aujayeb, Avinash; Ausloos, Marcel; Awad, Hamzeh; Awotidebe, Adedapo Wasiu; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose L; Azadnajafabad, Sina; Azeez, Fahad Khan; Azevedo, Rui MS; Badar, Muhammad; Baghdadi, Soroush; Bagheri, Mahboube; Bagheri, Nasser; Bai, Ruhai; Baker, Jennifer L; Bako, Abdulaziz T; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar; Balcha, Wondu Feyisa; Baltatu, Ovidiu Constantin; Barchitta, Martina; Bardideh, Erfan; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Barqawi, Hiba Jawdat; Barteit, Sandra; Basiru, Afisu; Basso, João Diogo; Bastan, Mohammad-Mahdi; Basu, Sanjay; Bauckneht, Matteo; Baune, Bernhard T; Bayati, Mohsen; Bayileyegn, Nebiyou Simegnew; Behnoush, Amir Hossein; Behzadi, Payam; Beiranvand, Maryam; Bello, Olorunjuwon Omolaja; Belo, Luis; Beloukas, Apostolos; Bemanalizadeh, Maryam; Bensenor, Isabela M; Benzian, Habib; Beran, Azizullah; Berezvai, Zombor; Bernstein, Robert S; Bettencourt, Paulo JG; Beyene, Kebede A; Beyene, Melak Gedamu; Bhagat, Devidas S; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhandari, Dinesh; Bharadwaj, Ravi; Bhardwaj, Nikha; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhargava, Ashish; Bhaskar, Sonu; Bhat, Vivek; Bhattacharjee, Natalia V; Bhatti, Gurjit Kaur; Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh; Bhatti, Manpreet S; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bisignano, Catherine; Biswas, Bijit; Bjørge, Tone; Bodolica, Virginia; Bodunrin, Aadam Olalekan; Bonakdar Hashemi, Milad; Bora Basara, Berrak; Borhany, Hamed; Bosoka, Samuel Adolf; Botero Carvajal, Alejandro; Bouaoud, Souad; Boufous, Soufiane; Boxe, Christopher; Boyko, Edward J; Brady, Oliver J; Braithwaite, Dejana; Brauer, Michael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Brenner, Hermann; Brown, Colin Stewart; Browne, Annie J; Brugha, Traolach; Bryazka, Dana; Bulamu, Norma B; Buonsenso, Danilo; Burkart, Katrin; Burns, Richard A; Busse, Reinhard; Bustanji, Yasser; Butt, Zahid A; Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Çakmak Barsbay, Mehtap; Calina, Daniela; Campos, Luciana Aparecida; Cao, Shujin; Capodici, Angelo; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carreras, Giulia; Carugno, Andrea; Carvalho, Márcia; Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio; Castelpietra, Giulio; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Caye, Arthur; Cegolon, Luca; Cembranel, Francieli; Cenko, Edina; Cerin, Ester; Chadban, Steven J; Chadwick, Joshua; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chakraborty, Sandip; Chalek, Julian; Chan, Jeffrey Shi Kai; Chandika, Rama Mohan; Chandy, Sara; Charan, Jaykaran; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Chaurasia, Akhilanand; Chen, An-Tian; Chen, Haowei; Chen, Meng Xuan; Chen, Simiao; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Chi, Gerald; Chichagi, Fatemeh; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chimoriya, Ritesh; Ching, Patrick R; Chirinos-Caceres, Jesus Lorenzo; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Cho, Daniel Youngwhan; Cho, William CS; Choi, Dong-Woo; Chong, Bryan; Chong, Chean Lin; Chopra, Hitesh; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Chung, Eric; Chutiyami, Muhammad; Clayton, Justin T; Cogen, Rebecca M; Cohen, Aaron J; Columbus, Alyssa; Comfort, Haley; Conde, Joao; Connolly, Jon T; Cooper, Ezra EK; Cortese, Samuele; Cruz-Martins, Natália; da Silva, Alanna Gomes; Dadras, Omid; Dai, Xiaochen; Dai, Zhaoli; Dalton, Bronte E; Damiani, Giovanni; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Das, Jai K; Das, Saswati; Das, Subasish; Dash, Nihar Ranjan; Davletov, Kairat; De la Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Leo, Diego; Debopadhaya, Shayom; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Desai, Hardik Dineshbhai; Devanbu, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Dhama, Kuldeep; Dhane, Amol S; Dhingra, Sameer; Dias da Silva, Diana; Diaz, Daniel; Diaz, Luis Antonio; Diaz, Michael J; Dima, Adriana; Ding, Delaney D; Do, Thao Huynh Phuong; do Prado, Camila Bruneli; Dodangeh, Masoud; Dodangeh, Milad; Doegah, Phidelia Theresa; Dohare, Sushil; Dong, Wanyue; D'Oria, Mario; Doshi, Rajkumar; Dowou, Robert Kokou; Dsouza, Haneil Larson; Dsouza, Viola; Dube, John; Dumith, Samuel C; Duncan, Bruce B; Duraes, Andre Rodrigues; Duraisamy, Senbagam; Durojaiye, Oyewole Christopher; Dushpanova, Anar; Dutta, Sulagna; Dzianach, Paulina Agnieszka; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz Marian; Eboreime, Ejemai; Ebrahimi, Alireza; Ebrahimi Kalan, Mohammad; Edinur, Hisham Atan; Efendi, Ferry; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Eini, Ebrahim; Ekundayo, Temitope Cyrus; El Arab, Rabie Adel; El Sayed, Iman; Elamin, Osman; Elemam, Noha Mousaad; ElGohary, Ghada Metwally Tawfik; Elhadi, Muhammed; Elmeligy, Omar Abdelsadek Abdou; Elmoselhi, Adel B; Elshaer, Mohammed; Elsohaby, Ibrahim; Eltahir, Mohd Elmagzoub; Emeto, Theophilus I; Eshrati, Babak; Eslami, Majid; Esmaeili, Zahra; Fabin, Natalia; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Fagbule, Omotayo Francis; Falzone, Luca; Fareed, Mohammad; Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sá; Faris, MoezAlIslam Ezzat Mahmoud; Faro, Andre; Fasihi, Kiana; Fatehizadeh, Ali; Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Fazylov, Timur; Feigin, Valery L; Fekadu, Ginenus; Feng, Xiaoqi; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrara, Pietro; Ferreira, Nuno; Firew, Belete Sewasew; Fischer, Florian; Fitriana, Ida; Flavel, Joanne; Flor, Luisa S; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Foley, Kristen Marie; Fonzo, Marco; Force, Lisa M; Foschi, Matteo; Freitas, Alberto; Fridayani, Ni Kadek Yuni; Fukutaki, Kai Glenn; Furtado, João M; Fux, Blima; Gaal, Peter Andras; Gadanya, Muktar A; Gallus, Silvano; Ganesan, Balasankar; Ganiyani, Mohammad Arfat; Gautam, Rupesh K; Gebi, Tilaye Gebru; Gebregergis, Miglas W; Gebrehiwot, Mesfin; Getacher, Lemma; Getahun, Genanew KA; Gething, Peter W; Ghadimi, Delaram J; Ghadirian, Fataneh; Ghafarian, Sadegh; Ghailan, Khalid Yaser; Ghasemi, MohammadReza; Ghasempour Dabaghi, Ghazal; Ghazy, Ramy Mohamed; Ghoba, Sama; Gholami, Ehsan; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Gholizadeh, Nasim; Ghorbani, Mahsa; Ghorbani Vajargah, Pooyan; Ghotbi, Elena; Gil, Artyom Urievich; Gill, Tiffany K; Girmay, Alem; Glasbey, James C; Glushkova, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Gnedovskaya, Elena V; Göbölös, Laszlo; Goldust, Mohamad; Goleij, Pouya; Golinelli, Davide; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goulart, Alessandra C; Gouravani, Mahdi; Goyal, Anmol; Grivna, Michal; Grosso, Giuseppe; Guarducci, Giovanni; Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen; Guicciardi, Stefano; Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Gulati, Snigdha; Gulisashvili, David; Gunawardane, Damitha Asanga; Guo, Cui; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Renu; Gupta, Sapna; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Haakenstad, Annie; Hadi, Najah R; Haep, Nils; Hafiz, Abdul; Haghmorad, Dariush; Haile, Demewoz; Hajj Ali, Adel; Hajj Ali, Ali; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Halboub, Esam S; Haller, Sebastian; Halwani, Rabih; Hamagharib Abdullah, Kanaan; Hamdy, Nadia M; Hamoudi, Rifat; Hanifi, Nasrin; Hankey, Graeme J; Haq, Zaim Anan; Haque, Md Rabiul; Harapan, Harapan; Hargono, Arief; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasaballah, Ahmed I; Hasan, SM Mahmudul; Hasanian, Mohammad; Hasnain, Md Saquib; Hassan, Amr; Haubold, Johannes; Hay, Simon I; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Hegazi, Omar E; Heidari, Mohammad; Hemmati, Mehdi; Henson, Claire A; Herrera-Serna, Brenda Yuliana; Herteliu, Claudiu; Heydari, Majid; Hezam, Kamal; Hidayana, Irma; Hiraike, Yuta; Hoan, Nguyen Quoc; Holla, Ramesh; Hoogar, Praveen; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hossain, Md Mahbub; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Chengxi; Huang, Junjie; Hultström, Michael; Hundie, Tsegaye Gebreyes; Hunt, Aliza J; Hushmandi, Kiavash; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, M Azhar; Hussein, Nawfal R; Huynh, Hong-Han; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel; Iftikhar, Pulwasha Maria; Ikiroma, Adalia I; Ikwegbue, Paul Chukwudi; Ilic, Irena M; Ilic, Milena D; Immurana, Mustapha; Isa, Mustafa Alhaji; Islam, Md Rabiul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ismail, Faisal; Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah; Isola, Gaetano; Iwagami, Masao; Iyamu, Ihoghosa Osamuyi; Jacob, Louis; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jafarinia, Morteza; Jahankhani, Kasra; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jain, Nityanand; Jairoun, Ammar Abdulrahman; Jakhmola Mani, Dr Ruchi; Jamil, Safayet; Jamora, Roland Dominic G; Jatau, Abubakar Ibrahim; Javadov, Sabzali; Javaheri, Tahereh; Jayaram, Shubha; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeganathan, Jayakumar; Jiang, Heng; Jokar, Mohammad; Jonas, Jost B; Joseph, Nitin; Joshua, Charity Ehimwenma; Jürisson, Mikk; K, Vaishali; Kabir, Ali; Kabir, Zubair; Kadashetti, Vidya; Kalankesh, Laleh R; Kalra, Sanjay; Kamath, Ashwin; Kamath, Rajesh; Kamireddy, Arun; Kanaan, Mona; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kanmiki, Edmund Wedam; Kanmodi, Kehinde Kazeem; Kansal, Sushil Kumar; Karim, Asima; Karkhah, Samad; Kashoo, Faizan Zaffar; Kasraei, Hengameh; Kassel, Molly B; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kauppila, Joonas H; Kaur, Harkiran; Kayode, Gbenga A; Kazemi, Foad; Kazemian, Sina; Kebede, Fassikaw; Kendal, Evie Shoshannah; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Khademvatan, Shahram; Khajuria, Himanshu; Khalaji, Amirmohammad; Khalid, Asaad; Khalid, Nauman; Khalilian, Alireza; Khamesipour, Faham; Khan, Fayaz; Khan, Mohammad Jobair; Khan, Moien AB; Khanmohammadi, Shaghayegh; Khatab, Khaled; Khatatbeh, Haitham; Khatatbeh, Moawiah Mohammad; Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli; Khayat Kashani, Hamid Reza; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Khokhar, Manoj; Khormali, Moein; Khorrami, Zahra; Khosla, Atulya Aman; Khosravi, Majid; Khosrowjerdi, Mahmood; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kifle, Zemene Demelash; Kim, Grace; Kim, Julie Sojin; Kim, Min Seo; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo; Kochhar, Sonali; Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Kompani, Farzad; Koren, Gerbrand; Korzh, Oleksii; Krishan, Kewal; Krishna, Varun; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuddus, Md Abdul; Kuddus, Mohammed; Kuitunen, Ilari; Kujan, Omar; Kulimbet, Mukhtar; Kulkarni, Vishnutheertha; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Harish; Kumar, Nithin; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Vijay; Kundu, Amartya; Kusuma, Dian; Kyei-Arthur, Frank; Kytö, Ville; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lacey, Ben; Ladan, Muhammad Awwal; Laflamme, Lucie; Lahariya, Chandrakant; Lai, Daphne Teck Ching; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lám, Judit; Lan, Qing; Lan, Tuo; Landires, Iván; Lanfranchi, Francesco; Langguth, Berthold; Lansingh, Van Charles; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Larijani, Bagher; Larsson, Anders O; Lasrado, Savita; Lauriola, Paolo; Lawlor, Hilary R; Le, Huu-Hoai; Le, Long Khanh Dao; Le, Nhi Huu Hanh; Le, Thao Thi Thu; Le, Trang Diep Thanh; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Doo Woong; Lee, Munjae; Lee, Paul H; Lee, Sang-woong; Lee, Seung Won; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lee, Yo Han; Leigh, James; Leong, Elvynna; Li, Ming-Chieh; Libra, Massimo; Ligade, Virendra S; Lim, Lee-Ling; Lim, Stephen S; Limenh, Liknaw Workie; Lindholm, Daniel; Lindstedt, Paulina A; Listl, Stefan; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Shuke; Liu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xuefeng; Llanaj, Erand; López-Bueno, Rubén; López-Gil, José Francisco; Loreche, Arianna Maever; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lubinda, Jailos; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Luo, Lisha; Lusk, Jay B; Lv, Lei; M Amin, Hawraz Ibrahim; Ma, Zheng Feei; Maass, Kelsey Lynn; Machairas, Nikolaos; Machoy, Monika; Madureira-Carvalho, Áurea M; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Maghazachi, Azzam A; Mahadeshwara Prasad, DR; Mahalleh, Mehrdad; Mahasha, Phetole Walter; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Mahmoudi, Elham; Mahmoudvand, Golnaz; Makama, Maureen; Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Malhotra, Kashish; Malik, Ahmad Azam; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manla, Yosef; Mansour, Ali; Mansouri, Mohammad Hadi; Mansouri, Pejman; Mansouri, Vahid; Mansourian, Marjan; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Marasini, Bishnu P; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Maravilla, Joemer C; Mardi, Parham; Marjani, Abdoljalal; Markazi Moghadam, Hamed; Marrugo Arnedo, Carlos Alberto; Martinez, Gabriel; Martinez-Piedra, Ramon; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Martorell, Miquel; Marx, Wolfgang; Marzo, Roy Rillera; Masoudi, Sahar; Mathangasinghe, Yasith; Mathioudakis, Alexander G; Mathur, Medha; Mathur, Navgeet; Mathur, Neeta; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mattumpuram, Jishanth; Maude, Richard James; Maugeri, Andrea; Mayeli, Mahsa; Mazidi, Mohsen; Mazzotti, Antonio; McGrath, John J; McKee, Martin; McKowen, Anna Laura W; McPhail, Michael A; McPhail, Steven M; Mehmood, Asim; Mehrabani-Zeinabad, Kamran; Mehravar, Sepideh; Mekene Meto, Tesfahun; Melese, Endalkachew Belayneh; Mendez-Lopez, Max Alberto Mendez; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G; Mensah, George A; Mensah, Laverne G; Mentis, Alexios-Fotios A; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J; Mersha, Abera M; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Mettananda, Kukulege Chamila Dinushi; Mettananda, Sachith; Mhlanga, Adquate; Mhlanga, Laurette; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Michalek, Irmina Maria; Micheletti Gomide Nogueira de Sá, Ana Carolina; Miller, Ted R; Minh, Le Huu Nhat; Mirahmadi, Alireza; Mirijello, Antonio; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Mirzaei, Roya; Mitchell, Philip B; Mittal, Chaitanya; Moberg, Madeline E; Moghadam Fard, Atousa; Mohajelin, Seyedehfatemeh; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Mohamed, Ahmed Ismail; Mohamed, Jama; Mohamed, Mouhand FH; Mohamed, Nouh Saad; Mohammad, Ameen Mosa; Mohammadi, Soheil; Mohammed, Hussen; Mohammed, Mustapha; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H; Molokhia, Mariam; Momani, Shaher Mohammad; Momtazmanesh, Sara; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Moni, Mohammad Ali; Montazeri, Fateme; Moodi Ghalibaf, AmirAli; Moradi, Maryam; Moradi, Yousef; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Moreira, Rafael Silveira; Morovatdar, Negar; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mosapour, Abbas; Mosser, Jonathan F; Mossialos, Elias; Motappa, Rohith; Mougin, Vincent; Mousavi, Parsa; Mrejen, Matías; Mubarik, Sumaira; Mueller, Ulrich Otto; Mulita, Francesk; Munjal, Kavita; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Musallam, Khaled M; Musina, Ana-Maria; Mustafa, Ghulam; Myung, Woojae; Nafei, Ayoub; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Naghavi, Pirouz; Naik, Ganesh R; Naik, Gurudatta; Nainu, Firzan; Najdaghi, Soroush; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Nangia, Vinay; Narasimha Swamy, Sreenivas; Nargus, Shumaila; Narimani Davani, Delaram; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Naser, Abdallah Y; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Natto, Zuhair S; Nauman, Javaid; Navaratna, Samidi NK; Naveed, Muhammad; Nawsherwan; Nayak, Biswa Prakash; Nayak, Vinod C; Negash, Hadush; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Nejadghaderi, Seyed Aria; Nejjari, Chakib; Nematollahi, Soroush; Netsere, Henok Biresaw; Ng, Marie; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Ngunjiri, Josephine W; Nguyen, Anh Hoang; Nguyen, Dang H; Nguyen, Duc Hoang; Nguyen, Hau Thi Hien; Nguyen, Nhan; Nguyen, Nhien Ngoc Y; Nguyen, Phat Tuan; Nguyen, QuynhAnh P; Nguyen, Van Thanh; Nguyen Tran Minh, Duc; Niazi, Robina Khan; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Niknam, Mahdieh; Nikoobar, Ali; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Nikravangolsefid, Nasrin; Noman, Efaq Ali; Nomura, Shuhei; Noor, Syed Toukir Ahmed; Noroozi, Nafise; Nouri, Mehran; Nozari, Majid; Nri-Ezedi, Chisom Adaobi; Ntaios, George; Nunemo, Mengistu H; Nurrika, Dieta; Nutor, Jerry John; Nzoputam, Chimezie Igwegbe; Nzoputam, Ogochukwu Janet; Oancea, Bogdan; Obamiro, Kehinde O; Odetokun, Ismail A; Oduro, Michael Safo; Ogundijo, Oluwaseun Adeolu; Ogunfowokan, Adesola Adenike; Ogunkoya, Abiola; Oguntade, Ayodipupo Sikiru; Oh, In-Hwan; Ojo-Akosile, Tolulope R; Okati-Aliabad, Hassan; Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Okonji, Osaretin Christabel; Olagunju, Andrew T; Olatubi, Matthew Idowu; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Oluwafemi, Yinka Doris; Omar, Hany A; Omer, Goran Latif; Ong, Sokking; Onie, Sandersan; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Opejin, Abdulahi Opejin; Ordak, Michal; Orish, Verner N; Ortiz, Alberto; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Osman, Wael MS; Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostroff, Samuel M; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu Levi; Otoiu, Adrian; Otstavnov, Stanislav S; Ouyahia, Amel; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Ozair, Ahmad; P A, Mahesh Padukudru; Padron-Monedero, Alicia; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Palicz, Tamás; Pan, Feng; Pan, Hai-Feng; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Anamika; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Pangaribuan, Helena Ullyartha; Panos, Georgios D; Panos, Leonidas D; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Pantea Stoian, Anca Mihaela; Parikh, Romil R; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Seoyeon; Park, Sungchul; Parsons, Nicholas; Parthasarathi, Ashwaghosha; 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Raeisi Shahraki, Hadi; Rafferty, Quinn; Raggi, Alberto; Raggi, Cat; Raheem, Nasiru; Rahim, Fakher; Rahim, Md Jillur; Rahimibarghani, Sarvenaz; Rahman, Md Mijanur Mijanur Rahman; Rahman, Mosiur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Tafhimur; Rahmani, Amir Masoud; Rahmanian, Mohammad; Rahmanian, Nazanin; Rahmati, Rahem; Rahmawaty, Setyaningrum; Raimondo, Diego; Raja, Adarsh; Rajput, Prashant; Ramadan, Majed; Ramasamy, Shakthi Kumaran; Ramazanu, Sheena; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rana, Kritika; Rana, Rishabh Kumar; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rane, Amey; Rao, Chythra R; Rao, Mithun; Rasella, Davide; Rashedi, Vahid; Rashid, Ahmed Mustafa; Rasouli-Saravani, Ashkan; Rastogi, Prateek; Rasul, Azad; Rathish, Devarajan; Rathnaiah Babu, Giridhara; Rauniyar, Santosh Kumar; Ravangard, Ramin; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Raza, Rabail Zehra; Redwan, Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed; Reifels, Lennart; Reitsma, Marissa B; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rengasamy, Kannan RR; Reshmi, Bhageerathy; Resnikoff, Serge; Restaino, Stefano; Reyes, Luis Felipe; 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  • Item
    Global Burden and Strength of Evidence for 88 Risk Factors in 204 Countries and 811 Subnational Locations, 1990–2021: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    (Elsevier BV, 2024) Brauer, Michael; Roth, Gregory A; Aravkin, Aleksandr Y; Zheng, Peng; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abate, Yohannes Habtegiorgis; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasgholizadeh, Rouzbeh; Abbasi, Madineh Akram; Abbasian, Mohammadreza; Abbasifard, Mitra; Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Abdi, Parsa; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Abdoun, Meriem; Abdulah, Deldar Morad; Abdullahi, Auwal; Abebe, Mesfin; Abedi, Aidin; Abedi, Armita; Abegaz, Tadesse M; Abeldaño Zuñiga, Roberto Ariel; Abiodun, Olumide; Abiso, Temesgen Lera; Aboagye, Richard Gyan; Abolhassani, Hassan; Abouzid, Mohamed; Aboye, Girma Beressa; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Abualruz, Hasan; Abubakar, Bilyaminu; Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Abukhadijah, Hana Jihad Jihad; Aburuz, Salahdein; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Adane, Mesafint Molla; Addo, Isaac Yeboah; Addolorato, Giovanni; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adekanmbi, Victor; Aden, Bashir; Adetunji, Juliana Bunmi; Adeyeoluwa, Temitayo Esther; Adha, Rishan; Adibi, Amin; Adnani, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah; 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Barteit, Sandra; Basharat, Zarrin; Basiru, Afisu; Basso, João Diogo; Bastan, Mohammad-Mahdi; Basu, Sanjay; Batchu, Sai; Batra, Kavita; Batra, Ravi; Baune, Bernhard T; Bayati, Mohsen; Bayileyegn, Nebiyou Simegnew; Beaney, Thomas; Behnoush, Amir Hossein; Beiranvand, Maryam; Béjot, Yannick; Bekele, Alehegn; Belgaumi, Uzma Iqbal; Bell, Arielle Wilder; Bell, Michelle L; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Bello, Olorunjuwon Omolaja; Belo, Luis; Beloukas, Apostolos; Bendak, Salaheddine; Bennett, Derrick A; Bennitt, Fiona B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Benzian, Habib; Beran, Azizullah; Berezvai, Zombor; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernstein, Robert S; Bettencourt, Paulo JG; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhandari, Dinesh; Bhardwaj, Nikha; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhaskar, Sonu; Bhat, Ajay Nagesh; Bhat, Vivek; Bhatti, Gurjit Kaur; Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh; Bhatti, Manpreet S; Bhatti, Rajbir; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Bishai, Jessica Devin; Bisignano, Catherine; Biswas, Atanu; Biswas, Bijit; Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Bjørge, Tone; Boachie, Micheal Kofi; Boakye, Hosea; Bockarie, Moses John; Bodolica, Virginia; Bodunrin, Aadam Olalekan; Bogale, Eyob Ketema; Bolla, Srinivasa Rao; Boloor, Archith; Bonakdar Hashemi, Milad; Boppana, Sri Harsha; Bora Basara, Berrak; Borhany, Hamed; Botero Carvajal, Alejandro; Bouaoud, Souad; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert; Boxe, Christopher; Braithwaite, Dejana; Brant, Luisa C; Brar, Amanpreet; Breitborde, Nicholas JK; Breitner, Susanne; Brenner, Hermann; Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich; Britton, Gabrielle; Brown, Colin Stewart; Browne, Annie J; Brunoni, Andre R; Bryazka, Dana; Bulamu, Norma B; Bulto, Lemma N; Buonsenso, Danilo; Burkart, Katrin; Burns, Richard A; Busse, Reinhard; Bustanji, Yasser; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Butt, Zahid A; Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Cagney, Jack; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Calina, Daniela; Cámera, Luis Alberto; Campos, Luciana Aparecida; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Cao, Chao; Cao, Fan; Cao, Yubin; Capodici, Angelo; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carr, Sinclair; Carreras, Giulia; Carrero, Juan J; Carugno, Andrea; Carvalho, Felix; Carvalho, Márcia; Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castelpietra, Giulio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Catapano, Alberico L; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Caye, Arthur; Cederroth, Christopher R; Cegolon, Luca; Cenderadewi, Muthia; Cercy, Kelly M; Cerin, Ester; Chadwick, Joshua; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chakraborty, Promit Ananyo; Chakraborty, Sandip; Chan, Jeffrey Shi Kai; Chan, Raymond NC; Chandan, Joht Singh; Chandika, Rama Mohan; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Chen, An-Tian; Chen, Catherine S; Chen, Haowei; Chen, Meng Xuan; Chen, Mingling; Chen, Simiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheng, Esther TW; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Chi, Gerald; Chichagi, Fatemeh; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chimoriya, Ritesh; Ching, Patrick R; Chirinos-Caceres, Jesus Lorenzo; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Cho, William CS; Chong, Bryan; Chopra, Hitesh; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christopher, Devasahayam J; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Chukwu, Isaac Sunday; Chung, Eric; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Chutiyami, Muhammad; Cioffi, Iolanda; Cogen, Rebecca M; Cohen, Aaron J; Columbus, Alyssa; Conde, Joao; Corlateanu, Alexandru; Cortese, Samuele; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Costa, Vera Marisa; Costanzo, Simona; Criqui, Michael H; Cruz, Jessica A; Cruz-Martins, Natália; Culbreth, Garland T; da Silva, Alanna Gomes; Dadras, Omid; Dai, Xiaochen; Dai, Zhaoli; Daikwo, Patience Unekwuojo; Dalli, Lachlan L; Damiani, Giovanni; D'Amico, Emanuele; D'Anna, Lucio; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Das, Jai K; Das, Subasish; Dash, Nihar Ranjan; Dashti, Mohsen; Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto; Davis Weaver, Nicole; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; De la Hoz, Fernando Pio; de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; De Leo, Diego; Debopadhaya, Shayom; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Bo', Cristian; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Demoze, Chalachew Kassaw; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Dervišević, Emina; Desai, Hardik Dineshbhai; Desai, Rupak; Devanbu, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Dhali, Arkadeep; Dhama, Kuldeep; Dhane, Amol S; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhingra, Sameer; Dhulipala, Vishal R; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Dias da Silva, Diana; Diaz, Daniel; Diaz, Luis Antonio; Diaz, Michael J; Dima, Adriana; Ding, Delaney D; Dinu, Monica; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Thanh Chi; Do, Thao Huynh Phuong; do Prado, Camila Bruneli; Dodangeh, Masoud; Dohare, Sushil; Dokova, Klara Georgieva; Dong, Wanyue; Dongarwar, Deepa; D'Oria, Mario; Dorostkar, Fariba; Dorsey, E Ray; Doshi, Rajkumar; Doshmangir, Leila; Dowou, Robert Kokou; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dsouza, Ashel Chelsea; Dsouza, Haneil Larson; Dumith, Samuel C; Duncan, Bruce B; Duraes, Andre Rodrigues; Duraisamy, Senbagam; Dushpanova, Anar; Dzianach, Paulina Agnieszka; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz Marian; Ebrahimi, Alireza; Echieh, Chidiebere Peter; Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Edinur, Hisham Atan; Edvardsson, David; Edvardsson, Kristina; Efendi, Ferry; Eftekharimehrabad, Aziz; Eini, Ebrahim; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Ekundayo, Temitope Cyrus; El Arab, Rabie Adel; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; El-Dahiyat, Faris; Elemam, Noha Mousaad; Elgar, Frank J; ElGohary, Ghada Metwally Tawfik; Elhabashy, Hala Rashad; Elhadi, Muhammed; Elmehrath, Ahmed O; Elmeligy, Omar Abdelsadek Abdou; Elshaer, Mohammed; Elsohaby, Ibrahim; Emeto, Theophilus I; Esfandiari, Negin; Eshrati, Babak; Eslami, Majid; Esmaeili, Sayed Vahid; Estep, Kara; Etaee, Farshid; Fabin, Natalia; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Fagbule, Omotayo Francis; Fahimi, Saman; Falzone, Luca; Fareed, Mohammad; Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sá; Faris, MoezAlIslam Ezzat Mahmoud; Faris, Pawan Sirwan; Faro, Andre; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fatehizadeh, Ali; Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Fazylov, Timur; Feigin, Valery L; Feng, Xiaoqi; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Feroze, Abdullah Hamid; Ferrara, Pietro; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferreira, Nuno; Fetensa, Getahun; Feyisa, Bikila Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitriana, Ida; Flavel, Joanne; Flohr, Carsten; Flood, David; Flor, Luisa S; Foigt, Nataliya A; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Force, Lisa M; Fortuna, Daniela; Foschi, Matteo; Franklin, Richard Charles; Freitas, Alberto; Friedman, Sara D; Fux, Blima; G, Sridevi; Gaal, Peter Andras; Gaihre, Santosh; Gajdács, Márió; Galali, Yaseen; Gallus, Silvano; Gandhi, Aravind P; Ganesan, Balasankar; Ganiyani, Mohammad Arfat; Garcia, Vanessa; Gardner, William M; Garg, Ravindra K; Gautam, Rupesh K; Gebi, Tilaye Gebru; Gebregergis, Miglas W; Gebrehiwot, Mesfin; Gebremariam, Tesfay BB; Gebremeskel, Teferi Gebru; Gerema, Urge; Getacher, Lemma; Getahun, Genanew KA; Getie, Molla; Ghadirian, Fataneh; Ghafarian, Sadegh; Ghaffari Jolfayi, Amir; Ghailan, Khalid Yaser; Ghajar, Alireza; Ghasemi, MohammadReza; Ghasempour Dabaghi, Ghazal; Ghasemzadeh, Afsaneh; Ghassemi, Fariba; Ghazy, Ramy Mohamed; Gholami, Ali; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Gholizadeh, Nasim; Ghorbani, Mahsa; Gil, Artyom Urievich; Gil, Gabriela Fernanda; Gilbertson, Nora M; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K; Gindaba, Ebisa Zerihun; Girmay, Alem; Glasbey, James C; Gnedovskaya, Elena V; Göbölös, Laszlo; Godinho, Myron Anthony; Goel, Amit; Golechha, Mahaveer; Goleij, Pouya; Golinelli, Davide; Gomes, Nelson GM; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gorini, Giuseppe; Goudarzi, Houman; Goulart, Alessandra C; Gouravani, Mahdi; Goyal, Anmol; Graham, Simon Matthew; Grivna, Michal; Grosso, Giuseppe; Guan, Shi-Yang; Guarducci, Giovanni; Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen; Guha, Avirup; Guicciardi, Stefano; Gulati, Snigdha; Gulisashvili, David; Gunawardane, Damitha Asanga; Guo, Cui; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Gupta, Mohak; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajat Das; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Sapna; Gupta, Veer Bala; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Habibzadeh, Parham; Hadaro, Tesfahun Simon; Hadian, Zahra; Haep, Nils; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed; Haghmorad, Dariush; Hagins, Hailey; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu; Hajj Ali, Adel; Halboub, Esam S; Halimi, Aram; Hall, Brian J; Haller, Sebastian; Halwani, Rabih; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hamdy, Nadia M; Hameed, Sajid; Hamidi, Samer; Hammoud, Ahmad; Hanif, Asif; Hanifi, Nasrin; Haq, Zaim Anan; Haque, Md Rabiul; Harapan, Harapan; Hargono, Arief; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasaballah, Ahmed I; Hasan, Ikramul; Hasan, Mohammad Jahid; Hasan, SM Mahmudul; Hasani, Hamidreza; Hasanian, Mohammad; Hashmeh, Nadim; Hasnain, Md Saquib; Hassan, Amr; Hassan, Ikrama; Hassan Zadeh Tabatabaei, Mahgol Sadat; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Hassanipour, Soheil; Hassankhani, Hadi; Haubold, Johannes; Havmoeller, Rasmus J; Hay, Simon I; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Hegazi, Omar E; Hegena, Tadele Yohannes; Heidari, Golnaz; Heidari, Mohammad; Helfer, Bartosz; Hemmati, Mehdi; Henson, Claire A; Herbert, Molly E; Herteliu, Claudiu; Heuer, Austin; Hezam, Kamal; Hinneh, Thomas Kwadwo; Hiraike, Yuta; Hoan, Nguyen Quoc; Holla, Ramesh; Hon, Julia; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hossain, Sahadat; Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hoven, Hanno; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hsu, Johnathan M; Hu, Chengxi; Huang, Junjie; Huda, Md Nazmul; 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Jokar, Mohammad; Jomehzadeh, Nabi; Jonas, Jost B; Joo, Tamas; Joseph, Abel; Joseph, Nitin; Joshi, Vivek; Joshua, Charity Ehimwenma; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jürisson, Mikk; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Kabir, Ali; Kabir, Zubair; Kadashetti, Vidya; Kahn, Ethan M; Kalani, Rizwan; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Kalra, Sanjay; Kamath, Rajesh; Kanagasabai, Thanigaivelan; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kandel, Himal; Kanmiki, Edmund Wedam; Kanmodi, Kehinde Kazeem; Kansal, Sushil Kumar; Kapner, Daniel John; Kapoor, Neeti; Karagiannidis, Efstratios; Karajizadeh, Mehrdad; Karakasis, Paschalis; Karanth, Shama D; Karaye, Ibraheem M; Karch, André; Karim, Asima; Karimi, Hanie; Karmakar, Shilpi; Kashoo, Faizan Zaffar; Kasraei, Hengameh; Kassahun, Woldeteklehaymanot Dagne; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Kassel, Molly B; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kauppila, Joonas H; Kawakami, Norito; Kaydi, Neda; Kayode, Gbenga A; Kazemi, Foad; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kempen, John H; Kerr, Jessica A; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khajuria, Himanshu; Khalaji, Amirmohammad; Khalil, Mariam; Khalilian, Alireza; Khamesipour, Faham; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Khan, Maseer; Khan, Mohammad Jobair; Khan, Moien AB; Khanmohammadi, Shaghayegh; Khatab, Khaled; Khatatbeh, Haitham; Khatatbeh, Moawiah Mohammad; Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli; Khavandegar, Armin; Khayat Kashani, Hamid Reza; Khidri, Feriha Fatima; Khodadoust, Elaheh; Khormali, Moein; Khorrami, Zahra; Khosla, Atulya Aman; Khosrowjerdi, Mahmood; Khreis, Haneen; Khusun, Helda; Kifle, Zemene Demelash; Kim, Kwanghyun; Kim, Min Seo; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo; Koh, David SQ; Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Kompani, Farzad; Kong, Jianqiu; Koren, Gerbrand; Korja, Miikka; Korshunov, Vladimir Andreevich; Korzh, Oleksii; Kosen, Soewarta; Kothari, Nikhil; Koul, Parvaiz A; Koulmane Laxminarayana, Sindhura Lakshmi; Krishan, Kewal; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Krishnamoorthy, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Bindu; Krohn, Kris J; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuddus, Md Abdul; Kuddus, Mohammed; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kuitunen, Ilari; Kulimbet, Mukhtar; Kulkarni, Vishnutheertha; Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Nithin; Kumar, Vijay; Kundu, Satyajit; Kurmi, Om P; Kusnali, Asep; Kusuma, Dian; Kutluk, Tezer; La Vecchia, Carlo; Ladan, Muhammad Awwal; Laflamme, Lucie; Lahariya, Chandrakant; Lai, Daphne Teck Ching; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lallukka, Tea; Lám, Judit; Lan, Qing; Lan, Tuo; Landires, Iván; Lanfranchi, Francesco; Langguth, Berthold; Lansingh, Van Charles; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Larijani, Bagher; Larsson, Anders O; Lasrado, Savita; Lauriola, Paolo; Le, Huu-Hoai; Le, Long Khanh Dao; Le, Nhi Huu Hanh; Le, Thao Thi Thu; Leasher, Janet L; Ledda, Caterina; Lee, Munjae; Lee, Paul H; Lee, Seung Won; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lee, Yo Han; LeGrand, Kate E; Leigh, James; Leong, Elvynna; Lerango, Temesgen L; Lescinsky, Haley; Leung, Janni; Li, Ming-Chieh; Li, Wang-Zhong; Li, Wei; Li, Yichong; Li, Zhihui; Ligade, Virendra S; 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Nejjari, Chakib; Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Nepal, Samata; Neupane, Subas; Ng, Marie; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Ngunjiri, Josephine W; Nguyen, Dang H; Nguyen, Nhien Ngoc Y; Nguyen, Phat Tuan; Nguyen, Phuong The; Nguyen, Van Thanh; Nguyen Tran Minh, Duc; Niazi, Robina Khan; Nicholson, Sneha Ingle; Nie, Jing; Nikoobar, Ali; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nnaji, Chukwudi A; Noman, Efaq Ali; Nomura, Shuhei; Noroozi, Nafise; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nri-Ezedi, Chisom Adaobi; Ntaios, George; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Nunemo, Mengistu H; Nurrika, Dieta; Nutor, Jerry John; Oancea, Bogdan; O'Connell, Erin M; Odetokun, Ismail A; O'Donnell, Martin James; Oduro, Michael Safo; Ogunfowokan, Adesola Adenike; Ogunkoya, Abiola; Oh, In-Hwan; Okati-Aliabad, Hassan; Okeke, Sylvester Reuben; Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Okonji, Osaretin Christabel; Olagunju, Andrew T; Olasupo, Omotola O; Olatubi, Matthew Idowu; Oliveira, Arão Belitardo; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Olorukooba, Abdulhakeem Abayomi; Olufadewa, Isaac Iyinoluwa; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Oluwafemi, Yinka Doris; Omar, Hany A; Omar Bali, Ahmed; Omer, Goran Latif; Ong, Kanyin Liane; Ong, Sokking; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Onyedibe, Kenneth Ikenna; Oppong, Anita Frimpomaa; Ordak, Michal; Orish, Verner N; Ornello, Raffaele; Orpana, Heather M; Ortiz, Alberto; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Osman, Wael MS; Ostroff, Samuel M; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu Levi; Otoiu, Adrian; Otstavnov, Nikita; Otstavnov, Stanislav S; Ouyahia, Amel; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa Temitayo; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; P A, Mahesh Padukudru; Pacheco-Barrios, Kevin; Padron-Monedero, Alicia; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Palicz, Tamás; Pan, Feng; Pan, Hai-Feng; Pana, Adrian; Panda, Sujogya K; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Ashok; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Pangaribuan, Helena Ullyartha; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Pantea Stoian, Anca Mihaela; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi; Parent, Marie C; Parija, Pragyan Paramita; Parikh, Romil R; Park, Seoyeon; Park, Sungchul; Parsons, Nicholas; Pashaei, Ava; Pasovic, Maja; Passera, Roberto; Patil, Shankargouda; Patoulias, Dimitrios; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Paudel, Uttam; Pawar, Shrikant; Pazoki Toroudi, Hamidreza; Peden, Amy E; Pedersini, Paolo; Peng, Minjin; Pensato, Umberto; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino; Peprah, Emmanuel K; Peprah, Prince; Peres, Mario FP; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Perico, Norberto; Perna, Simone; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petcu, Ionela-Roxana; Petermann-Rocha, Fanny Emily; Pham, Hoang Tran; Philip, Anil K; Phillips, Michael R; Pickering, Brandon V; Pierannunzio, Daniela; Pigeolet, Manon; Pigott, David M; Piracha, Zahra Zahid; Piradov, Michael A; Pisoni, Enrico; Piyasena, Mapa Prabhath; Plass, Dietrich; Plotnikov, Evgenii; Poddighe, Dimitri; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Poluru, Ramesh; Pond, Constance Dimity; Popovic, Djordje S; Porru, Fabio; Postma, Maarten J; Poudel, Govinda Raj; Pour-Rashidi, Ahmad; Pourshams, Akram; Pourtaheri, Naeimeh; Prabhu, Disha; Prada, Sergio I; Pradhan, Jalandhar; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Prasad, Manya; Prates, Elton Junio Sady; Purnobasuki, Hery; Purohit, Bharathi M; Puvvula, Jagadeesh; Qasim, Nameer Hashim; Qattea, Ibrahim; Qazi, Asma Saleem; Qian, Gangzhen; Qiu, Suli; Rabiee Rad, Mehrdad; Radfar, Amir; Radhakrishnan, Raghu Anekal; Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Raeisi Shahraki, Hadi; Rafferty, Quinn; Rafiei, Alireza; Raggi, Alberto; Raghav, Pankaja Raghav; Raheem, Nasiru; Rahim, Fakher; Rahim, Md Jillur; Rahimifard, Mahban; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Md Obaidur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahmani, Amir Masoud; Rahmani, Bita; Rahmanian, Mohammad; Rahmanian, Nazanin; Rahmanian, Vahid; Rahmati, Masoud; Rahmawaty, Setyaningrum; Raimondo, Diego; Rajaa, Sathish; Rajendran, Vinoth; Rajput, Prashant; Ramadan, Mahmoud Mohammed; Ramasamy, Shakthi Kumaran; Ramasubramani, Premkumar; Ramazanu, Sheena; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rana, Juwel; Rana, Kritika; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rane, Amey; Rani, Usha; Ranta, Annemarei; Rao, Chythra R; Rao, Mithun; Rao, Puja C; Rao, Sowmya J; Rasella, Davide; Rashedi, Sina; Rashedi, Vahid; Rashidi, Mahsa; Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi; Rasouli-Saravani, Ashkan; Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Rathnaiah Babu, Giridhara; Rauniyar, Santosh Kumar; Rautalin, Ilari; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Rawassizadeh, Reza; Razo, Christian; Reda, Zinabu Ferede Ferede; Reddy, Murali Mohan Rama Krishna; Redwan, Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed; Reifels, Lennart; Reitsma, Marissa B; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Reshmi, Bhageerathy; Resnikoff, Serge; Restaino, Stefano; Reyes, Luis Felipe; Rezaei, Maryam; Rezaei, Nazila; Rezaei, Negar; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Rhee, Taeho Gregory; Riaz, Mavra A; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Rickard, Jennifer; Robinson-Oden, Hannah Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Célia Fortuna; Rodrigues, Mónica; Rodriguez, Jefferson Antonio Buendia; Roever, Leonardo; Romadlon, Debby Syahru; Ronfani, Luca; Rosauer, Jennifer Jacqueline; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostamian, Morteza; Rotimi, Kunle; Rout, Himanshu Sekhar; Roy, Bedanta; Roy, Nitai; Rubagotti, Enrico; Ruela, Guilherme de Andrade; Rumisha, Susan Fred; Runghien, Tilleye; Russo, Michele; Ruzzante, Sacha Walde; S N, Chandan; Saad, Aly MA; Saber, Korosh; Saber-Ayad, Maha Mohamed; Sabour, Siamak; Sacco, Simona; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Saddik, Basema; Saddler, Adam; Sadee, Bashdar Abuzed; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sadeghi Majd, Elham; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Saeed, Umar; Safari, Mehdi; Safi, Sare; Safi, Sher Zaman; Sagar, Rajesh; Sagoe, Dominic; Saheb Sharif-Askari, Fatemeh; Saheb Sharif-Askari, Narjes; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Sahu, Monalisha; Saif, Zahra; Sajid, Mirza Rizwan; Sakshaug, Joseph W; Salam, Nasir; Salamati, Payman; Salami, Afeez Abolarinwa; Salaroli, Luciane B; Salehi, Leili; Salehi, Sana; Salem, Marwa Rashad; Salem, Mohammed ZY; Salihu, Dauda; Salimi, Sohrab; Salum, Giovanni A; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Samadzadeh, Sara; Samodra, Yoseph Leonardo; Samuel, Vijaya Paul; Samy, Abdallah M; Sanabria, Juan; Sanjeev, Rama Krishna; Sanna, Francesca; Santomauro, Damian Francesco; Santric-Milicevic, Milena M; Sarasmita, Made Ary; Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer; Saravanan, Aswini; Saravi, Babak; Sarikhani, Yaser; Sarmiento-Suárez, Rodrigo; Sarode, Gargi Sachin; Sarode, Sachin C; Sartorius, Benn; Sarveazad, Arash; Sathian, Brijesh; Sattin, Davide; Sawhney, Monika; Saya, Ganesh Kumar; Sayeed, Abu; Sayeed, Md Abu; Sayyah, Mehdi; Schinckus, Christophe; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schuermans, Art; Schumacher, Austin E; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Schwebel, David C; Schwendicke, Falk; Selvaraj, Siddharthan; Semreen, Mohammad H; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Serban, Dragos; Serre, Marc L; Sethi, Yashendra; Shafie, Mahan; Shah, Humaira; Shah, Nilay S; Shah, Pritik A; Shah, Syed Mahboob; Shahbandi, Ataollah; Shaheen, Amira A; Shahid, Samiah; Shahid, Wajeehah; Shahsavari, Hamid R; Shahwan, Moyad Jamal; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shaikh, Summaiya Zareen; Shalash, Ali S; Sham, Sunder; Shamim, Muhammad Aaqib; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamshirgaran, Mohammad Ali; Shamsi, Mohammad Anas; Shanawaz, Mohd; Shankar, Abhishek; Sharfaei, Sadaf; Sharifan, Amin; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Ujjawal; Sharma, Vishal; Shastry, Rajesh P; Shavandi, Amin; Shehabeldine, Amr Mohamed Elsayed; Shehzadi, Somia; Sheikh, Aziz; Shen, Jiabin; Shetty, Adithi; Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Shetty, Pavanchand H; Shiani, Amir; Shiferaw, Desalegn; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shittu, Aminu; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakumar, KM; Shivarov, Velizar; Shool, Sina; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Shrestha, Rajan; Shrestha, Sunil; Shuja, Kanwar Hamza; Shuval, Kerem; Si, Yafei; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Luís Manuel Lopes Rodrigues; Silva, Soraia; Silva, Thales Philipe R; Simpson, Colin R; Singh, Abhinav; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Garima; Singh, Harmanjit; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singh, Mahendra; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Paramdeep; Singh, Surjit; Sinto, Robert; Sivakumar, Shravan; Siwal, Samarjeet Singh; Skhvitaridze, Natia; Skou, Søren T; Sleet, David A; Sobia, Farrukh; Soboka, Matiwos; Socea, Bogdan; Solaimanian, Shahabaddin; Solanki, Ranjan; Solanki, Shipra; Soliman, Sameh SM; Somayaji, Ranjani; Song, Yi; Sorensen, Reed JD; Soriano, Joan B; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Spartalis, Michael; Spearman, Sandra; Spencer, Cory N; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stachteas, Panagiotis; Stafford, Lauryn K; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Stanikzai, Muhammad Haroon; Stein, Caroline; Stein, Dan J; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steinke, Sabine; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Stockfelt, Leo; Stokes, Mark A; Straif, Kurt; Stranges, Saverio; Subedi, Narayan; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Suleman, Muhammad; Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Rizwan; Sundström, Johan; Sunkersing, David; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Suresh, Vinay; Swain, Chandan Kumar; Szarpak, Lukasz; Szeto, Mindy D; Tabaee Damavandi, Payam; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabatabaei, Seyyed Mohammad; Tabatabaei Malazy, Ozra; Tabatabaeizadeh, Seyed-Amir; Tabatabai, Shima; 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Waqas, Muhammad; Ward, Paul; Waris, Abdul; Wassie, Emebet Gashaw; Weerakoon, Kosala Gayan; Weintraub, Robert G; Weiss, Daniel J; Weiss, Eli J; Weldetinsaa, Haftom Legese Legese; Wells, Katherine M; Wen, Yi Feng; Wiangkham, Taweewat; Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Wilkerson, Caroline; Willeit, Peter; Wilson, Shadrach; Wong, Yen Jun; Wongsin, Utoomporn; Wozniak, Sarah; Wu, Chenkai; Wu, Dongze; Wu, Felicia; Wu, Zenghong; Xia, Juan; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Suowen; Xu, Xiaoyue; Xu, Yvonne Yiru; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Yaghoubi, Sajad; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yang, Lin; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaribeygi, Habib; Yasufuku, Yuichi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yesodharan, Renjulal; Yesuf, Subah Abderehim; Yezli, Saber; Yi, Siyan; Yiğit, Arzu; Yigzaw, Zeamanuel Anteneh; Yin, Dehui; Yip, Paul; Yismaw, Malede Berihun; Yon, Dong Keon; Yonemoto, Naohiro; You, Yuyi; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Yu, Chuanhua; Yu, Yong; Zadey, Siddhesh; Zadnik, Vesna; Zakham, Fathiah; Zaki, Nazar; Zakzuk, Josefina; Zamagni, Giulia; Zaman, Sojib Bin; 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    Global Incidence, Prevalence, Years Lived with Disability (YLDs), Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs), and Healthy Life Expectancy (Hale) for 371 Diseases and Injuries in 204 Countries and Territories and 811 Subnational Locations, 1990–2021: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    (Elsevier BV, 2024) GBD 2021 Diseases and Injuries Collaborators
    BACKGROUND: Detailed, comprehensive, and timely reporting on population health by underlying causes of disability and premature death is crucial to understanding and responding to complex patterns of disease and injury burden over time and across age groups, sexes, and locations. The availability of disease burden estimates can promote evidence-based interventions that enable public health researchers, policy makers, and other professionals to implement strategies that can mitigate diseases. It can also facilitate more rigorous monitoring of progress towards national and international health targets, such as the Sustainable Development Goals. For three decades, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) has filled that need. A global network of collaborators contributed to the production of GBD 2021 by providing, reviewing, and analysing all available data. GBD estimates are updated routinely with additional data and refined analytical methods. GBD 2021 presents, for the first time, estimates of health loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The GBD 2021 disease and injury burden analysis estimated years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 371 diseases and injuries using 100 983 data sources. Data were extracted from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, censuses, household surveys, disease-specific registries, health service contact data, and other sources. YLDs were calculated by multiplying cause-age-sex-location-year-specific prevalence of sequelae by their respective disability weights, for each disease and injury. YLLs were calculated by multiplying cause-age-sex-location-year-specific deaths by the standard life expectancy at the age that death occurred. DALYs were calculated by summing YLDs and YLLs. HALE estimates were produced using YLDs per capita and age-specific mortality rates by location, age, sex, year, and cause. 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for all final estimates as the 2·5th and 97·5th percentiles values of 500 draws. Uncertainty was propagated at each step of the estimation process. Counts and age-standardised rates were calculated globally, for seven super-regions, 21 regions, 204 countries and territories (including 21 countries with subnational locations), and 811 subnational locations, from 1990 to 2021. Here we report data for 2010 to 2021 to highlight trends in disease burden over the past decade and through the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: Global DALYs increased from 2·63 billion (95% UI 2·44-2·85) in 2010 to 2·88 billion (2·64-3·15) in 2021 for all causes combined. Much of this increase in the number of DALYs was due to population growth and ageing, as indicated by a decrease in global age-standardised all-cause DALY rates of 14·2% (95% UI 10·7-17·3) between 2010 and 2019. Notably, however, this decrease in rates reversed during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, with increases in global age-standardised all-cause DALY rates since 2019 of 4·1% (1·8-6·3) in 2020 and 7·2% (4·7-10·0) in 2021. In 2021, COVID-19 was the leading cause of DALYs globally (212·0 million [198·0-234·5] DALYs), followed by ischaemic heart disease (188·3 million [176·7-198·3]), neonatal disorders (186·3 million [162·3-214·9]), and stroke (160·4 million [148·0-171·7]). However, notable health gains were seen among other leading communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases. Globally between 2010 and 2021, the age-standardised DALY rates for HIV/AIDS decreased by 47·8% (43·3-51·7) and for diarrhoeal diseases decreased by 47·0% (39·9-52·9). Non-communicable diseases contributed 1·73 billion (95% UI 1·54-1·94) DALYs in 2021, with a decrease in age-standardised DALY rates since 2010 of 6·4% (95% UI 3·5-9·5). Between 2010 and 2021, among the 25 leading Level 3 causes, age-standardised DALY rates increased most substantially for anxiety disorders (16·7% [14·0-19·8]), depressive disorders (16·4% [11·9-21·3]), and diabetes (14·0% [10·0-17·4]). Age-standardised DALY rates due to injuries decreased globally by 24·0% (20·7-27·2) between 2010 and 2021, although improvements were not uniform across locations, ages, and sexes. Globally, HALE at birth improved slightly, from 61·3 years (58·6-63·6) in 2010 to 62·2 years (59·4-64·7) in 2021. However, despite this overall increase, HALE decreased by 2·2% (1·6-2·9) between 2019 and 2021. INTERPRETATION: Putting the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of causes of health loss is crucial to understanding its impact and ensuring that health funding and policy address needs at both local and global levels through cost-effective and evidence-based interventions. A global epidemiological transition remains underway. Our findings suggest that prioritising non-communicable disease prevention and treatment policies, as well as strengthening health systems, continues to be crucially important. The progress on reducing the burden of CMNN diseases must not stall; although global trends are improving, the burden of CMNN diseases remains unacceptably high. Evidence-based interventions will help save the lives of young children and mothers and improve the overall health and economic conditions of societies across the world. Governments and multilateral organisations should prioritise pandemic preparedness planning alongside efforts to reduce the burden of diseases and injuries that will strain resources in the coming decades. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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    Global Burden of 288 Causes of Death and Life Expectancy Decomposition in 204 Countries and Territories and 811 Subnational Locations, 1990–2021: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    (Elsevier BV, 2024) Naghavi, M; Ong, KL; Aali, A; Ababneh, HS; Abate, YH; Abbafati, C; Abbasgholizadeh, R; Abbasian, M; Abbasi-Kangevari, M; Abbastabar, H; Abd ElHafeez, S; Abdelmasseh, M; Abd-Elsalam, S; Abdelwahab, A; Abdollahi, M; Abdollahifar, MA; Abdoun, M; Abdulah, DM; Abdullahi, A; Abebe, M; Abebe, SS; Abedi, A; Abegaz, KH; Abhilash, ES; Abidi, H; Abiodun, O; Aboagye, RG; Abolhassani, H; Abolmaali, M; Abouzid, M; Aboye, GB; Abreu, LG; Abrha, WA; Abtahi, D; Abu Rumeileh, S; Abualruz, H; Abubakar, B; Abu-Gharbieh, E; Abu-Rmeileh, NM; Aburuz, S; Abu-Zaid, A; Accrombessi, MMK; Adal, TG; Adamu, AA; Addo, IY; Addolorato, G; Adebiyi, AO; Adekanmbi, V; Adepoju, AV; Adetunji, CO; Adetunji, JB; Adeyeoluwa, TE; Adeyinka, DA; Adeyomoye, OI; Admass, BAA; Adnani, QES; Adra, S; Afolabi, AA; Afzal, MS; Afzal, S; Agampodi, SB; Agasthi, P; Aggarwal, M; Aghamiri, S; Agide, FD; Agodi, A; Agrawal, A; Agyemang-Duah, W; Ahinkorah, BO; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, D; Ahmad, F; Ahmad, MM; Ahmad, S; Ahmad, S; Ahmad, T; Ahmadi, K; Ahmadzade, AM; Ahmed, A; Ahmed, A; Ahmed, H; Ahmed, LA; Ahmed, MS; Ahmed, MS; Ahmed, MB; Ahmed, SA; Ajami, M; Aji, B; Akara, EM; Akbarialiabad, H; Akinosoglou, K; Akinyemiju, T; Akkaif, MA; Akyirem, S; Al Hamad, H; Al Hasan, SM; Alahdab, F; Alalalmeh, SO; Alalwan, TA; Al-Aly, Z
    Background: Regular, detailed reporting on population health by underlying cause of death is fundamental for public health decision making. Cause-specific estimates of mortality and the subsequent effects on life expectancy worldwide are valuable metrics to gauge progress in reducing mortality rates. These estimates are particularly important following large-scale mortality spikes, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. When systematically analysed, mortality rates and life expectancy allow comparisons of the consequences of causes of death globally and over time, providing a nuanced understanding of the effect of these causes on global populations. Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2021 cause-of-death analysis estimated mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) from 288 causes of death by age-sex-location-year in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations for each year from 1990 until 2021. The analysis used 56 604 data sources, including data from vital registration and verbal autopsy as well as surveys, censuses, surveillance systems, and cancer registries, among others. As with previous GBD rounds, cause-specific death rates for most causes were estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model—a modelling tool developed for GBD to assess the out-of-sample predictive validity of different statistical models and covariate permutations and combine those results to produce cause-specific mortality estimates—with alternative strategies adapted to model causes with insufficient data, substantial changes in reporting over the study period, or unusual epidemiology. YLLs were computed as the product of the number of deaths for each cause-age-sex-location-year and the standard life expectancy at each age. As part of the modelling process, uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated using the 2·5th and 97·5th percentiles from a 1000-draw distribution for each metric. We decomposed life expectancy by cause of death, location, and year to show cause-specific effects on life expectancy from 1990 to 2021. We also used the coefficient of variation and the fraction of population affected by 90% of deaths to highlight concentrations of mortality. Findings are reported in counts and age-standardised rates. Methodological improvements for cause-of-death estimates in GBD 2021 include the expansion of under-5-years age group to include four new age groups, enhanced methods to account for stochastic variation of sparse data, and the inclusion of COVID-19 and other pandemic-related mortality—which includes excess mortality associated with the pandemic, excluding COVID-19, lower respiratory infections, measles, malaria, and pertussis. For this analysis, 199 new country-years of vital registration cause-of-death data, 5 country-years of surveillance data, 21 country-years of verbal autopsy data, and 94 country-years of other data types were added to those used in previous GBD rounds. Findings: The leading causes of age-standardised deaths globally were the same in 2019 as they were in 1990; in descending order, these were, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lower respiratory infections. In 2021, however, COVID-19 replaced stroke as the second-leading age-standardised cause of death, with 94·0 deaths (95% UI 89·2–100·0) per 100 000 population. The COVID-19 pandemic shifted the rankings of the leading five causes, lowering stroke to the third-leading and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to the fourth-leading position. In 2021, the highest age-standardised death rates from COVID-19 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa (271·0 deaths [250·1–290·7] per 100 000 population) and Latin America and the Caribbean (195·4 deaths [182·1–211·4] per 100 000 population). The lowest age-standardised death rates from COVID-19 were in the high-income super-region (48·1 deaths [47·4–48·8] per 100 000 population) and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania (23·2 deaths [16·3–37·2] per 100 000 population). Globally, life expectancy steadily improved between 1990 and 2019 for 18 of the 22 investigated causes. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the positive effect that reductions in deaths from enteric infections, lower respiratory infections, stroke, and neonatal deaths, among others have contributed to improved survival over the study period. However, a net reduction of 1·6 years occurred in global life expectancy between 2019 and 2021, primarily due to increased death rates from COVID-19 and other pandemic-related mortality. Life expectancy was highly variable between super-regions over the study period, with southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania gaining 8·3 years (6·7–9·9) overall, while having the smallest reduction in life expectancy due to COVID-19 (0·4 years). The largest reduction in life expectancy due to COVID-19 occurred in Latin America and the Caribbean (3·6 years). Additionally, 53 of the 288 causes of death were highly concentrated in locations with less than 50% of the global population as of 2021, and these causes of death became progressively more concentrated since 1990, when only 44 causes showed this pattern. The concentration phenomenon is discussed heuristically with respect to enteric and lower respiratory infections, malaria, HIV/AIDS, neonatal disorders, tuberculosis, and measles. Interpretation: Long-standing gains in life expectancy and reductions in many of the leading causes of death have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, the adverse effects of which were spread unevenly among populations. Despite the pandemic, there has been continued progress in combatting several notable causes of death, leading to improved global life expectancy over the study period. Each of the seven GBD super-regions showed an overall improvement from 1990 and 2021, obscuring the negative effect in the years of the pandemic. Additionally, our findings regarding regional variation in causes of death driving increases in life expectancy hold clear policy utility. Analyses of shifting mortality trends reveal that several causes, once widespread globally, are now increasingly concentrated geographically. These changes in mortality concentration, alongside further investigation of changing risks, interventions, and relevant policy, present an important opportunity to deepen our understanding of mortality-reduction strategies. Examining patterns in mortality concentration might reveal areas where successful public health interventions have been implemented. Translating these successes to locations where certain causes of death remain entrenched can inform policies that work to improve life expectancy for people everywhere. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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