Gender and Diversity Research Group
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The Gender and Diversity Research Group build innovative quality research and lead discussions addressing gender and diversity issues within the community, at a national and international level. The group was formed in 2007 with the aim of establishing a network of researchers within (and beyond) AUT University who share an interest in gender and diversity.
We initiate socially relevant research and engage in high quality consultancy and research for organisations. We bring together a range of interdisciplinary researchers to investigate and support research in the following areas:
We initiate socially relevant research and engage in high quality consultancy and research for organisations. We bring together a range of interdisciplinary researchers to investigate and support research in the following areas:
- Significance of the body in the workplace
- Gender equity and diversity issues in organisations and society
- Critical analysis of heteronormativity in organisational cultures and practices
- Workplace access issues
- Effects of the intersections of identities including ethnicity, migration experiences, religion, gender, disability and class in the workplace and society
- Exploration and impact of men and masculinities in specific settings, such as sport
- Mapping workforce inequality for youth and those classified as older workers
- How diverse worldviews inform methodologies
- New ways of thinking about careers
- Leadership and leader(ship) development
- Teaching pedagogies and practices
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- Item‘Good’ Things Take Time: A Living Story of Research As ‘life’(Emerald, 2019) Hurd, F; Dyer, S; FitzPatrick, MPurpose Although the process of fieldwork is often characterised by dis-order, the requirement to adhere to a tightly defined methodology and produce timely research outputs often leads us to present our findings as though the research has been the product of a linear process. In this paper, we unmask this paradox, by documenting the dis-order and development of a research project 15 years (so far) in duration. Design/methodology/approach The approach used in this article is one of autoethnographic reflection, drawing on aspects of Boje’s living story approach, incorporating not only the ‘linear’ narrative of the research process, but also fragments of ante-narrative, themes running above and below the dominant. Within the study we are reflecting on, we employ a range of qualitative methods, including interview, focus groups, memory work, and living story (ante narrative) methods, within a critical management research methodology Findings Our experiences show that although ‘messiness’ may be an inherent part of qualitative research, it is this very dis-order, and the consequent opportunities for time and space, that allows the research, and the researcher, ‘time to breathe’. This reflexivity allows for methodological development and refinement, and ultimately rigorous and participative research, which also honours our participants. We argue that although this approach may not align with the current need for prolific (and rapid) publication, in allowing the dis-order to ‘be’ in the research, and allowing the time to reassess theoretical and methodological lenses, the resultant stories may be more authentic - both the stories gathered from participants and the stories of research. Originality/value The paper highlights the intertwining of stories of participants and stories from research, which is a significant addition to understandings of the ‘messiness’ of qualitative research. This paper adds to the growing call for the inclusion of ‘chaos’ and authenticity in qualitative research, acknowledging and valuing the humanity of the researcher, and giving voice to the paradox between the time to methodologically develop, and the requirement for timely research.
- ItemIlluminating Intersectionality for Tourism Researchers(Elsevier, 2018-04-02) Mooney, S
- ItemA Lost Tribe in the City: Health Status and Needs of African Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Hong Kong(BioMed Central Ltd., 2016) Wong, WCW; Cheng, S; Holroyd, E; Chen, J; Loper, KA; Tran, L; Miu, HYHBackground: Hong Kong's resistance to be a signatory of the 1951 Geneva Convention and lack of domestic policies in this area has resulted in restrictions on access to healthcare amongst asylum seekers and refugees (ASRs). Using social determinants of health framework this study sought to identify health practices, problems and needs of African ASRs in Hong Kong. Methods: A cross-sectional survey comprising of six domains including health status, health-seeking behaviour and social experience targeted at adult African ASRs in Hong Kong was conducted through three local non-governmental organisations between February and April 2013. Outpatient care and inpatient care in the past 12 months were used as proxy measures of general and severe ill health respectively. Associations between the determinants of health factors with general or severe health was explored through logistic regressions. Results: Majority of 374 participants were young, single, educated males having been in Hong Kong for over 5 years. A third of ARS (36.1 %) screened positive for depression. Most reported problems related to basic necessities (64.7-78.6 %) and access to health services (72.2 %). ASRs with relatively less education, health awareness or higher risk behaviours were less likely to have obtained outpatient or inpatient services. African ASRs reporting problems with case officers (aOR = 2.80; 95 % CI = 1.35-5.79) or illness in the past 30 days (aOR = 6.00; 95 % CI = 2.94-12.25) were more likely to report general ill health. Similarly, problems with the case officers (aOR = 3.76; 95 % CI = 1.97-7.18) and self-reported illness in the past 30 days (aOR = 3.32; 95 % CI= 1.68-6.57) were also significantly associated with severe ill health. At the health system level, those who reported experiencing difficulties accessing the medical services in Hong Kong are 3.29 (95 % CI = 1.48-7.31) and 4.12 (95 % CI = 1.73-9.79) times as likely to report general and severe ill health respectively. Conclusion: The host government should have moral and ethical obligations to attend to the health needs of ASRs. Evidently a number of structural and health system factors have significantly impacted the health of African ASRs in Hong Kong. Changes to current policies regarding how African ASRs are handled whilst in Hong Kong but, more immediately, improvements in healthcare access are needed.
- ItemSilent Strategies: The Legacy of Sexual Violence Among Chinese Indonesians(Gender and Cultural Studies, School of Culture, History and Language, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University., 2018-08-01) Andajani-Sutjahjo, S; Bennett, LR; Davies, SG
- Item‘Nimble’ Intersectionality in Employment Research: A Way to Resolve Methodological Dilemmas(Sage, 2016) Mooney, SThis contribution proposes nimble intersectionality in response to McBride et al.’s article about intersectional research in the field of employment and industrial relations. Although the authors’ call for all researchers to be ‘intersectionally sensitive’ is positive, regrettably, by highlighting the problems with intersectional methods, they reinforce the widespread perception that they are too difficult to implement. While intersectionality is undeniably complex, this article argues that a nimble approach can help resolve methodological dilemmas. By resolving four basic methodological questions at the onset of a study, researchers can successfully use an intersectional approach to explore age, gender, ethnicity, race and class in employment.
- ItemPursuing Equal Pay: The Perspectives of Female Engineers and Potential Policy Interventions(Sage, 2016-08-04) McGregor, J; Graham Davies, S; Giddings, L; Pringle, JThe gender pay gap of higher paid women working in traditionally male-dominated sectors has received less analysis in equal pay research than low paid, female-dominated and undervalued women’s work. This article explores equal pay from the perspectives of female engineers, well paid women working in a Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) sector in New Zealand, who perform work of the same or like nature to male engineers but who are paid less for doing so. It explores the gender pay gap against the complex intersections of labour market de-regulation, family demands, work and the ‘cost of being female’ that women in engineering must constantly navigate. The research uses quantitative pay data in the sector disaggregated by gender, and new qualitative data from focus groups and interviews with 22 female engineers. It finds a surprising lack of transparency around pay and remuneration in the sector at the individual level which negatively impacts on women. The article concludes by recommending new public policy initiatives for equal pay in sectors like engineering, where individualised negotiation and bargaining is embedded in neo-liberalism.
- ItemMuslim Diaspora in the West and International HRM(Routledge, 2017)
- ItemThe Global Filipino Nurse: An Integrative Review of Filipino Nurses' Work Experiences(Wiley, 2017)AIM: To understand the work-related experiences of Philippine-trained nurses working globally. BACKGROUND: The Philippines is a major source country of foreign-trained nurses located globally. However, there is paucity of research on professional factors and career related issues affecting foreign-trained nurses' work experiences. METHODS: An integrative review through a comprehensive search of literature was undertaken from November 2015 and was repeated in August 2016. Seven articles satisfied the selection criteria. RESULTS: Filipino nurses experienced differences in the practice of nursing in terms of work process, roles and autonomy. Moreover, they encountered challenges such as work-related discrimination and technical difficulties within the organisation. CONCLUSION: A clear understanding of Filipino nurses' work experiences and the challenges they have encountered suggests identification of important constructs influencing effective translation of nursing practice across cultures and health systems, which then form the basis for support strategies. IMPLICATION FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: It is critical to recognize foreign-trained nurses' experience of work-related differences and challenges as these foster favorable conditions for the management team to plan and continually evaluate policies around recruitment, retention and support offered to these nurses. Furthermore, findings suggest internationalization of nursing framework and standards integrating a transcultural paradigm among staff members within a work organisation.
- ItemChanging Perceptions About Feminists and (Still Not) Claiming a Feminist Identity(Routledge, 2016) Dyer, S; Hurd, FWe examine student perceptions about feminists and feminism, and the willingness to claim a feminist identity and engage in collective activism, as stated at the beginning and end of a Women’s Studies course. Course participation simultaneously fostered more positive views towards feminists and feminism and entrenched the unwillingness to claim a feminist identity and engage in activism. These contradictory outcomes stemmed from the critical capacity to recognise that structural inequality is reproduced through disciplinary relationships. Thus, unwillingness was entangled with feelings of fear and vulnerability in relation to the national context whereby neoliberalism guides the governance of the self, and where gender equality has presumed to be achieved. The article highlights that developing the willingness to identify and act is intimately shaped and constrained by the socio-political context and personal relationships. We consider the implications of this insight in relation to pedagogical assumptions about developing feminist knowledge in the classroom.
- ItemSustainability and the Tourism and Hospitality Workforce: A Thematic Analysis(MDPI, 2016) Baum, T; Cheung, C; Kong, H; Kralj, A; Mooney, S; Nguyễn Thị Thanh, H; Ramachandran, S; Dropulić Ružić, M; Siow, MLThis paper is about the position of workforce and employment considerations within the sustainable tourism narrative. The paper aims to address the relative neglect of this area within the discourse of sustainable tourism and highlights references to the workforce within the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The discussion follows the emerging field of sustainable human resource management and the contribution that this can make to meeting both the UN Sustainable Development Goals and to enhancing the recognition of workforce and employment issues within the related debate in tourism. The body of the paper highlights examples of key dimensions of work and employment across varied tourism contexts, where sustainability is of increasing consequence and significance. The paper concludes by drawing together the implications of these “mini-cases” and locating them within key principles of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
- ItemPacific Islands Families Study: Intimate Partner Stressors and Psychological Distress among Pacific Adults(Taylor and Francis, 2016) Paterson, J; Tautolo, ES; Iusitini, L; Taylor, SM; Farvid, PAlthough there has been increased research about the nature and predictors of sexual problems, relatively little is known about sexual health and well-being among minority ethnic groups across the world. This study explored stressful intimate relationship events that made a significant impact on psychological distress among Pacific adults living in New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study is a longitudinal investigation of Pacific children born in New Zealand, and their parents. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and intimate partner stress items were used to assess the relationship between these stressful events and psychological distress among Pacific mothers and fathers (n D 3963 interviews with 2114 individuals). For both men and women, the most significant partner stress associated with psychological distress was problems with sex. These findings show how stressful events around sexuality and intimate relationships affect Pacific psychological well-being. These intimate issues need to be considered when designing intervention and treatment programmes that are adaptive for long-term family stability and sexual well-being. The relationship between culture, sexuality, and psychological distress needs further investigation. Using a qualitative methodology would provide a more intensive exploration of the role that cultural context plays in intimate relationships and sexuality in Pacific adults.
- ItemWomen Opting In?: New Perspectives on the Kaleidoscope Career Model(SAGE Publications, 2018-09-24) Elley-Brown, M; Pringle, JK; Harris, CThis paper reports on findings of an interpretive study, which used the Kaleidoscope Career Model as lens through which to view the careers of professional women in education. The study used hermeneutic phenomenology, a methodology novel in management and career management to gain a subjective perspective on women’s career experience and what career means to them at different career stages. Findings indicated that women did not “opt-out,” or adopt a clear-cut gender beta career pattern. Rather, they mirrored an alpha pattern with challenge continuing into mid-career. The three Kaleidoscope Career Model parameters operated in an ongoing way in women’s lives, and authenticity was a powerful theme throughout their careers. However, women in late career tended to “lean back”; their desire for authenticity became subjugated by their need for balance. These findings add to extant Kaleidoscope Career Model research and reveal factors, which contribute to women’s ability to “opt-in” rather than out of their careers.
- ItemEquality As a Threshold Conception: Challenging Future Manager’s Perceptions(Emerald, 2018) Dyer, S; Hurd, FPurpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential to develop a shared understanding of systemic discrimination and the complexity of equality and an appreciation for the range of interventions designed to redress inequality within the context of business school curricula. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative material was gathered over a four-year period through written reflections of student interpretations of equality. Participants were enroled in a human resource management (HRM) course critically examining systemic gender discrimination, women’s organisational experiences, gendered employment outcomes and the range of interventions designed to redress gendered employment outcomes. Threshold concepts framed the analysis of participant reflections. Findings The paper shows that while the participants developed a shared understanding of systemic gender discrimination, their interpretations of equality and appreciation for the range of interventions available to redress inequality differed. These differences were shaped by the extent to which participants integrated their understanding of systemic discrimination with their interpretations of equality, and the extent to which the interventions to inequality transformed, upheld or challenged participant agendic self-identity and world view. Research limitations/implications The study provides support for continued use of equality as a construct in both research and teaching settings. The study highlights that unequal outcomes are an enduring phenomena, and that introducing the notion of equality to the classroom helps develop student’s ability to understand dynamics of discrimination in the workplace. The limitations of the study relate to the sample size, and dependence on a single specialist HRM course, in addition to the specific New Zealand context. Practical implications The differences in interpretations have implications for the way educators introduce discussions of equality within the business school classroom. Originality/value The paper demonstrates that developing a shared understanding of systemic discrimination does not always lead to developing a shared understanding of the complexity of equality or appreciation for the many forms of interventions available.
- ItemInclusive Workspaces: Diversity and Public Policy(The Policy Observatory, Auckland University of Technology, 2018-11-29) Pio, E; Singham, MWorkplace inequality remains a challenge for diversity and inclusion. So what role can public policy and the state sector play to promote and encourage positive change? This report, Inclusive Workspaces: Diversity and Public Policy, explores what governments can do to improve diversity outcomes in Aotearoa New Zealand. Professor Edwina Pio, AUT’s University Director of Diversity, and Mervin Singham, presently the Executive Director of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Historical Abuse in Care, explore the New Zealand context and international examples for public sector leadership in diversity and inclusion. While diversity and inclusion policy in New Zealand already supports a range of ‘soft practices, the authors argue that there is scope for more robust tactics to address continuing workplace inequalities and to enhance ‘cultural intelligence’ in our highly globalised era.
- ItemHospitality Training As a Means of Independence for Young Adults With Learning Disabilities(School of Hospitality & Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, 2018-10-25) McIntosh, A; Harris, CEmployment is a core plank of independent living for people with disabilities and a key part of their identity and self-esteem. Nevertheless, it is widely recorded that people with disabilities have lower employment rates than the non-disabled, and continue to experience workplace discrimination. Workers with disabilities are generally found to have greater loyalty to the company, punctuality to the job, dependability, greater levels of cooperation and dedication, and lower turnover rates and absenteeism. Representing an estimated 10–19 percent of the general population worldwide, people with disabilities are seen as an untapped source of workers for hospitality labour . Yet evidence shows that the hospitality industry has, so far, been a follower rather than a leader with respect to training and employment practices for people with disabilities compared to other industries . Viewing disability as a product of the disabling wider social and attitudinal barriers around disability (known as the social model of disability ), there is an opportunity for the hospitality industry to contribute toward positive social change. Given the need to change negative societal attitudes before there can be an increase in the employment of people with disabilities, there is an important need to examine representations of disability in hospitality training and employment. Representations are important because they set expectations around behavioural norms and can help break down barriers by influencing the perceptions of those who receive them. Applying a constructionist approach , this research examined how hospitality work and training is represented in the popular television documentary series The Special Needs Hotel as it relates to training for young adults with learning disabilities1 – a group who are rendered more marginalised in employment than any other group of young people with disabilities. The three-part TV series, which aired on TVNZ in 2017, followed the experiences of young people with learning disabilities as they received hands-on hospitality training at the Foxes Hotel and Academy – a specialist catering college and residential training hotel in Somerset, U.K., that is also a fully operating hotel with paying guests (http://foxesacademy.ac.uk/). Over their three years of study, learners are trained in three vocational departments – house-keeping, food preparation and food service – before being prepared to apply for and seek hospitality employment. The research found that the series positively presents hospitality training as a means of enjoyment and of ‘achieving independence’ for the young adults with learning disabilities, with coping strategies and accommodations used to ensure the learners meet the necessary ‘realistic expectations’ and requirements of hospitality work. Through the intensive hands-on training, the learners are found to successfully acquire life skills, gain independence, find hospitality employment, and make plans for the future. However, this positive representation contrasts with the fear and realities of independence and struggles with the pressures of hospitality work for the trainees themselves (struggles that are both emotional and physical due to the nature of their disability). Our research highlighted that not all learners wanted independence, and often struggled with the training; for example, the stress and speed of service delivery, difficulties in communicating with customers, and having to work alone. Lessons from this research provide the opportunity to review and vary what is expected of the ‘look and feel’ of hospitality work and service delivery in order to increase employment for people with disabilities. In particular, if left unchallenged, the stereotyping of the ‘professionalism’ expected in hospitality work and training can render people with learning disabilities as being and looking unprofessional as hospitality workers and requiring accommodation to meet the standards of ‘doing hospitality’. There is a need to give greater attention to disability awareness training, including information geared toward working alongside employees with disabilities, and HR practices. There are challenges to employers about their attitudes toward employing people with disabilities and management of the physical and service environment with regards to how they can render it welcoming or unwelcoming for employees with disabilities. Above all, this understanding can open opportunities to review and realign hospitality employment and training with ethical and non-discriminatory principles and guidelines, which are essential if the employment of people with disabilities is to be improved. As this research concluded, the inclusion of people with disabilities can make the hospitality experience more diverse, personal, meaningful, unique and memorable.
- ItemOlder Women: Employment and Wellbeing in Later Life(New Zealand Medical Association, 2017) Myers, B; Douglas, JThis article explores the older worker discourse on wellbeing and work by highlighting the labour market re-entry and work experiences of a small group of older women who returned to New Zealand ‘rejuvenated’ after completing self-initiated expatriation (SIE), a period of extended travel and work overseas. The women explored a diverse range of organisational employment options and despite their intention to engage in appropriate and meaningful work pathways, their experiences were marred by discrimination, disadvantage and disappointment. However the participants, buoyed by the freedom, challenges and learnings derived from their recent SIE, were no longer prepared to compromise their personal wellbeing by engaging in unsatisfactory work roles and looked to alternative avenues, outside formal organisational work to preserve their sense of wellbeing. This research contributes to the older worker and wellbeing discourses by encouraging employers and other stakeholders to embrace a broad range of ‘older’ employee pathways, in a spirit of employer–employee reciprocity that support and enhance individual and organisational wellbeing.
- ItemEconomy of Mana: Where to Next?(Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga, 2018-01-31)Writings on traditional Māori economies have highlighted the value system that philosophically underpins them and the relational nature of trading interactions. Further, the significance of mana in sustaining economic relationships has been emphasised, leading to the concept of an “economy of mana”. In this paper, we explore traditional Māori economies, the concept of mana and the limited exploration of an economy of mana in order to propose future research directions for Māori economic research. Despite a wealth of literature focusing on the past, and emerging research investigating the modern Māori economy, we argue there is yet to be an articulate visioning of Māori economic futures built upon an economy of mana. It is our contention that enhancing our understanding of where we want to go will ultimately support the development of alternative economies that will better provide for Māori aspirations in cultural, social and economic realms. Building upon the literature, we offer a definition and operating principles for an economy of mana, and propose future research directions to build our understanding of an economy of mana with the intention of supporting Māori aspirations and well-being.
- ItemLong Hospitality Careers - a Contradiction in Terms?(Emerald, 2016) Mooney, SK; Harris, C; Ryan, IPurpose The purpose of this paper is to explore why workers remain in long hospitality careers and to challenge the frequent portrayal of careers in the sector as temporary and unsatisfactory. Design/methodology/approach The study took an interpretative social constructionist approach. Methods used were memory-work, semi-structured interviews and intersectional analysis. Findings A key finding in this study is that career longevity in hospitality is not solely dependent on career progression. Strong social connection, a professional self-identity and complex interesting work contribute to long careers. Research limitations/implications The study contributes detailed empirical knowledge about hospitality career paths in New Zealand. Conclusions should be generalised outside the specific context with caution. Practical implications The findings that hospitality jobs can be complex and satisfying at all hierarchical ranks hold practical implications for Human Resource Managers in the service sector. To increase career longevity, hospitality employers should improve induction and socialisation processes and recognise their employees’ professional identity. Social implications This paper significantly extends the notion of belonging and social connection in service work. “Social connection” is distinctly different from social and networking career competencies. Strong social connection is created by a fusion of complex social relationships with managers, co-workers and guests, ultimately creating the sense of a respected professional identity and satisfying career. Originality/value The contemporary concept of a successful hospitality career is associated with an upwards career trajectory; however, this paper suggests that at the lower hierarchical levels of service work, many individuals enjoy complex satisfying careers with no desire for further advancement.
- Item“It’s Just a Lot More Casual”: Young Heterosexual Women’s Experiences of Using Tinder in New Zealand(Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, 2016) Farvid, P; Aisher, KTinder is a mobile dating app that has recently taken off among young heterosexuals. While attracting great media attention, little scholarly work exists on the topic. In this paper we begin to address this gap by reporting on a small research project that examined five young heterosexual women’s experiences of using Tinder in New Zealand. We argue that Tinder was situated within (and reproduced) a contradictory domain imbued elements of both pleasure and danger.