Using Vignettes About Racism From Health Practice in Aotearoa to Generate Anti-racism Interventions
Racism is a key modifiable determinant of health that contributes to health inequities in Aotearoa and elsewhere. Experiences of racism occur within the health sector for workers, patients and their whānau (extended family) every day. This paper uses stories of racism from nurses – reworked into vignettes – to examine the dynamics of racism to generate possible micro, meso and macro anti-racism interventions. A critical qualitative design was utilised, informed by kaupapa Māori approaches. The five vignettes in this paper were sourced from a pair of caucused focus groups with nine senior Māori (Indigenous peoples of Aotearoa) and Tauiwi (non-Māori) nurses held in Auckland Aotearoa in 2019. The vignettes were lightly edited and then critically analysed by both authors to identify sites of racism and generate ideas for anti-racism interventions. The vignettes illustrate five key themes in relation to racism. These include (i) mono-cultural practice, (ii) everyday micro-aggressions; (iii) complexity and the costs of racism, (iv) Pākehā (white settler) privilege and (v) employment discrimination. From analysing these themes, a range of evidence-based micro, meso and macro-level anti-racism interventions were derived. These ranged from engaging in reflective practice, education initiatives, monitoring, through to collective advocacy. Vignettes are a novel way to reveal sites of racism to create teachable moments and spark reflective practice and more active engagement in anti-racism interventions. When systematically analysed vignettes can be utilised to inform and refine anti-racist interventions. Being able to identify racism is essential to being able to effectively counter racism.