Artificial Intelligence is Changing the Ethics of Medicine: Reflections from the Australian Epilepsy Project
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a multidisciplinary scientific field that uses machines to solve real-world problems and predict outcomes. Despite the current enthusiasm about AI's potential as a clinical support tool, there is also a growing awareness and concern about the potentially harmful effects of AI. Because AI will likely impact expert-based decision-making in medicine, it is critical to consider the ethical issues that AI raises in medical research. This paper outlines the AI ethics guidelines of the Australian Epilepsy Project. This large-scale platform aims to democratise specialist care in epilepsy and use AI for clinical decision support based on prospective multimodal datasets (MRI, genetic, clinical, and cognitive data) from thousands of people with epilepsy. As AI develops rapidly, we focus on key areas of medical AI ethics previously identified in the literature, including Transparency, Justice and Fairness, Non-maleficence, Responsibility, and Sustainability. We believe AI is changing the ethics of medicine, and it is imperative to advance and update ethical guidelines adaptably while preparing for an era of augmented-intelligence-based medicine.