Surface Engineering of Metals: Techniques, Characterizations and Applications
This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in surface engineering of metals, encompassing techniques, characterization methods and applications. The study emphasizes the significance of surface engineering in enhancing the performance and functionality of metallic materials in various industries. The paper discusses the different techniques employed in surface engineering, including physical techniques such as thermal spray coatings and chemical techniques such as electroplating. It also explores characterization methods used to assess the microstructural, topographical, and mechanical properties of engineered surfaces. Furthermore, the paper highlights recent advancements in the field, focusing on nanostructured coatings, surface modification for corrosion protection, biomedical applications, and energy-related surface functionalization. It discusses the improved mechanical and tribological properties of nanostructured coatings, as well as the development of corrosion-resistant coatings and bioactive surface treatments for medical implants. The applications of surface engineering in industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, and healthcare are presented, showcasing the use of surface engineering techniques to enhance components, provide wear resistance, and improve corrosion protection. The paper concludes by discussing the challenges and future directions in surface engineering, highlighting the need for further research and development to address limitations and exploit emerging trends. The findings of this review contribute to advancing the understanding of surface engineering and its applications in various sectors, paving the way for future innovations and advancements.