Diagnostic Biomarker Discovery from Brain EEG Data Using LSTM, Reservoir-SNN, and NeuCube Methods in a Pilot Study Comparing Epilepsy and Migraine

Saeedinia, SA
Jahed-Motlagh, MR
Tafakhori, A
Kasabov, NK
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Journal Article
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC

The study introduces a new online spike encoding algorithm for spiking neural networks (SNN) and suggests new methods for learning and identifying diagnostic biomarkers using three prominent deep learning neural network models: deep BiLSTM, reservoir SNN, and NeuCube. EEG data from datasets related to epilepsy, migraine, and healthy subjects are employed. Results reveal that BiLSTM hidden neurons capture biological significance, while reservoir SNN activities and NeuCube spiking dynamics identify EEG channels as diagnostic biomarkers. BiLSTM and reservoir SNN achieve 90 and 85% classification accuracy, while NeuCube achieves 97%, all methods pinpointing potential biomarkers like T6, F7, C4, and F8. The research bears implications for refining online EEG classification, analysis, and early brain state diagnosis, enhancing AI models with interpretability and discovery. The proposed techniques hold promise for streamlined brain-computer interfaces and clinical applications, representing a significant advancement in pattern discovery across the three most popular neural network methods for addressing a crucial problem. Further research is planned to study how early can these diagnostic biomarkers predict an onset of brain states.

Deep BiLSTM , Deep reservoir SNN , EEG classification , Epilepsy , Migraine , NeuCube , Pattern recognition , Spike encoding algorithm , 46 Information and Computing Sciences , 32 Biomedical and Clinical Sciences , 4611 Machine Learning , Neurosciences , Neurodegenerative , Brain Disorders , 4.1 Discovery and preclinical testing of markers and technologies , 4 Detection, screening and diagnosis , Neurological
Scientific Reports, ISSN: 2045-2322 (Print); 2045-2322 (Online), Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 14(1), 10667-. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-60996-6
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