Effects of Preparation Method on the Biochemical Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of New Zealand Surf Clam Extracts
Molluscan extracts confer a wide range of health promoting properties, one of them is cytotoxicity. Extraction and processing can affect the efficacy and properties of bioactive molecules. New Zealand (NZ) surf clams have never been thoroughly studied for bioactives until recently. However, the effect of cold and heat extraction procedure on biochemical composition and cytotoxic activities of NZ surf clam remains unanswered. The objective is to compare the effects on cytotoxicity of three NZ surf clams (Diamond shell, Crassula aequilatera; Storm shell, Mactra murchisoni; and Deepwater Tua tua, Paphies donacina) extracts via cold or heat process across cancer cell lines to find out which process can preserve bioactivity better. Fractions of extracts prepared via cold or heat procedures were tested for cell growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in seven cancer cell lines. Apoptosis was induced through all cell lines, as further evidenced in Caspase-3/7 activities. Cell cycle arrest was focused on G2/M- and S- phases. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions, with the greatest bioactivity in this study, are rich in lipids and proteins, indicating likely bioactive sources. Cold preparation was responsible for the lowest cancer cell viability and induced greater apoptosis. Cold process retained better bioactivity/cytotoxicity than that of heat-processed extracts. This information may guide future health/nutraceutical clam product development.