An Exploration of the Goodness of Fit of Web-Based Tools for Māori: Qualitative Study Using Interviews and Focus Groups

aut.relation.journalJMIR Formative Research
dc.contributor.authorDonkin, Liesje
dc.contributor.authorBidios-Putt, Marie-Claire
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Holly
dc.contributor.authorHayward, Penelope
dc.contributor.authorChan, Amy
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Indigenous communities often have poorer health outcomes and services under traditional models of care. In New Zealand, this holds true for Māori people who are tāngata whenua (the indigenous people). Several barriers exist that decrease the likelihood of indigenous communities often have poorer health outcomes and poor service fit under traditional models of care, including access issues, systemic and provider racism, and a lack of culturally safe and responsive services. Web-based interventions (WBIs) have been shown to be effective in supporting mental health and well-being and can overcome some of these barriers. Despite the large number of WBIs developed, more investigation is needed to know how well WBIs fit with an indigenous worldview and how they meet the needs of indigenous communities so that a digitally based future does not drive social and health inequities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the goodness-of-fit of WBIs of Māori individuals, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. METHODS: We used interviews (n=3) and focus groups (n=5) with 30 Māori participants to explore their views about WBIs. Interviews were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis by members of the research team. RESULTS: Overall, there was a perception that the design of WBIs did not align with the Māori worldview, which centers around people, relationships, spirituality, and holistic views of well-being. A total of 4 key themes and several subthemes emerged, indicating that WBIs were generally considered a poor fit for Māori. Specifically, the themes were as follows: (1) WBIs are disconnected from the core values of te ao Māori (the Māori worldview), (2) WBIs could be helpful in the right context, (3) there are significant barriers that may make it harder for Māori to use WBIs than other groups, and (4) ways to improve WBIs to help engagement with Māori. CONCLUSIONS: While WBIs are often considered a way to reduce barriers to care, they may not meet the needs of Māori when used as a stand-alone intervention. If WBIs are continued to be offered, developers and researchers need to consider how to develop WBIs that are responsive and engaging to the needs of indigenous communities rather than driving inequities. Ideally, WBIs should be developed by the people they are intended for to fit with those populations' world views.
dc.identifier.citationJMIR Formative Research, ISSN: 2561-326X (Print); 2561-326X (Online), JMIR Publications Inc., 8, e50385-. doi: 10.2196/50385
dc.publisherJMIR Publications Inc.
dc.rights©Liesje Donkin, Marie-Claire Bidois-Putt, Holly Wilson, Penelope Hayward, Amy Hai Yan Chan. Originally published in JMIR Formative Research (, 02.05.2024. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Formative Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
dc.subjectIndigenous people
dc.subjectdigital intervention
dc.subjectmental health
dc.subjectweb-based intervention
dc.subject32 Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
dc.subject42 Health Sciences
dc.subject32 Biomedical and clinical sciences
dc.subject42 Health sciences
dc.titleAn Exploration of the Goodness of Fit of Web-Based Tools for Māori: Qualitative Study Using Interviews and Focus Groups
dc.typeJournal Article
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