Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies, Charging Methods, Standards and Optimization Techniques
Arif, SM; Lie, TT; Seet, BC; Ayyadi, S; Jensen, K
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This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of electric vehicle technology, charging methods, standards, and optimization techniques. The essential characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) are first discussed. Recent research on EV charging methods such as Battery Swap Station (BSS), Wireless Power Transfer (WPT), and Conductive Charging (CC) are then presented. This is followed by a discussion of EV standards such as charging levels and their configurations. Next, some of the most used optimization techniques for the sizing and placement of EV charging stations are analyzed. Finally, based on the insights gained, several recommendations are put forward for future research.