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dc.contributor.authorArif, SMen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorLie, TTen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorSeet, BCen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAhsan, SMen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhan, HAen_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-05T03:14:23Z
dc.date.available2020-05-05T03:14:23Z
dc.identifier.citationEnergies, 13(9), 2139. doi:10.3390/en13092139
dc.identifier.issn1996-1073en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/13312
dc.description.abstractPlug-in electric buses (PEBs) are a promising alternative to conventional buses to provide a sustainable, economical, and efficient mode of transportation. However, electrification of public transportation leads to a phenomenon of peak load that impacts the stability of low voltage (LV) feeders. In this context, the effective integration of an energy storage system (ESS) and photovoltaic (PV) in a bus depot charging ecosystem can lead to i) peak load reduction and ii) charging cost reduction with low carbon emission. Therefore, a limited PEB charge scheduling algorithm is proposed for: i) bus depot operator (BDO) profit maximization and ii) grid stability enhancement considering the constraints of PEB charging and grids. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for BDO profit maximization has been formulated and analyzed using IBM ILOG studio with CPLEX solver. Simulation has been performed for SkyBus electric fleet using real-world data such as actual bus arrival and departure schedules under diverse traffic, number of passengers, trip duration, daily load profile, solar radiation profile, and benchmark storage price. The charging impact of PEBs was tested on one of the distribution feeders in Auckland, New Zealand. The BDO generates revenue by performing energy trading among PV, ESS, PEBs, and buildings after incorporating capital investment, operation and maintenance, and depreciation costs.en_NZ
dc.languageenen_NZ
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttps://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/9/2139
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.subjectPlug-in electric bus; Limited/unlimited charge scheduling algorithm; Bus depot operator; Energy storage system; Low voltage feeder
dc.titlePlug-in Electric Bus Depot Charging with PV and ESS and Their Impact on LV Feederen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/en13092139en_NZ
aut.relation.endpage2139
aut.relation.issue9en_NZ
aut.relation.startpage2139
aut.relation.volume13en_NZ
pubs.elements-id374316
aut.relation.journalEnergiesen_NZ


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