Te Whanaketanga o Ngāi Tamarāwaho: the evolution of hapū identity
Many hapū and iwi in New Zealand are moving from a time dominated by a struggle to have historical grievances resulting from breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840) addressed, to an era of economic development and political reconstitution. As these communities continue to evolve in response to various social and economic forces, an increased awareness within hapū and iwi relating to issues of the constitution of their identity has emerged.
The purpose of this research is to examine the hapū of Ngāi Tamarāwaho, and the changing nature of its identity from the traditional (pre-colonial) era through the colonisation (colonial) era to the contemporary (post-colonial) era. Attention will be focused on the impact of the socio-historical process of colonisation on hapū identity, drawing on role theory, social identity theory and situated identity theory as a means of interpreting the construction and evolution of Ngāi Tamarāwaho identity. Consideration is given to the impact of socio-historical context on identity.
The narratives of eight members of Ngāi Tamarāwaho are analysed to determine how the identity of the hapū has evolved from the traditional era to the contemporary era. The findings reveal that the socio-historical contexts of the three phases of time considered in this thesis influence the identity of Ngāi Tamarāwaho, which evolved in response to the phenomena evident in each era.
One of the conclusions reached in this study is that given the events that unfolded in New Zealand, particularly in the colonisation era, it is necessary to consider the multiple and hybrid sites of identification that exist for many members of different tribal groups, and to challenge static and essentialist notions of identity