Barriers of International Graduates Seeking Employment After Graduation: A Systematic Review
MetadataShow full metadata
Many international students are moving abroad to get higher qualification and obtain relevant field jobs, which help them get permanent residency. To get better study and employment opportunities, many international students have a dream in their mind when they pack their bags and want to come abroad with their many hopes and aspirations. Many international students come to New Zealand to improve their standard of living, obtain better qualification, employment, and settle into the country. A majority of overseas students select study option to migrate into the host country and then obtain employment related to their qualifications. However, this is not a true story of every international student who comes abroad to fulfil their dreams. The families of international students invested a large amount in their studies with the hope of getting a decent job to pay off their loans. In international student’ lives, the transition from completing the education to work is a critical phase in which they encounter several hurdles in the host country labour market. Gribble et al. (2017), suggested that the objective of the host country is to promote the growth in the enrolment of international students and at the same time, and they get support from the government to obtain work experience. For many developing countries, graduate employment is becoming a significant issue in the host country. This study focused on identifying the problems international students encountered while seeking employment after completing their studies in New Zealand. According to the statistics on international students, India is a leading country after China from where international students come to study and considered an important resource that benefits both the host country and the home country. Much of the literature has discussed and covered international graduates' transitions into the education system in New Zealand and addressed their academic challenges, cultural shock, and workplace challenges (e.g. Furnham, 2010; Woodbridge & Bland, 2010). However, little research has been performed on the importance of international graduates' employment hurdle experiences after graduation. After China, India is becoming increasingly important as a player in the trade environment. In general, international students are considered an essential part of a country's social, academic, and economic growth. After having a rapid growth in the number of Indian international students, they often face many challenges while looking for post-study employment in New Zealand (Nanayakkara, 2018). They invested a huge amount by taking student loan for their tertiary education with the expectation of getting a job that matches their qualifications. The moment they graduate from university, their real struggle starts to look for a dream job that matches their qualification in New Zealand. Therefore, this research investigated the employment experiences and perspectives of Indian graduate students after completing their studies in New Zealand (Aotearoa) and identified the potential employment barriers. The study’s methodology employed a systematic literature review to answer the research question. The systematic literature review explored research problems by defining, reviewing, monitoring, and analysing all relevant studies published between 2009 and 2020 on the topic related to employment barriers and international students’ experiences. Thematic analysis was applied to develop the findings and revealed many themes and sub-themes that indicated the employment challenges faced by Indian graduates. Social capital (networks), local work experience, visa status, discrimination, language, skills, and qualifications were found to be crucial when seeking a relevant job after graduation. This study's findings have the potential to be a guide for novice international students seeking appropriate employment in New Zealand.