Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy scale for people with breathing pattern disorders
This pilot study developed a self-efficacy (SE) scale to assess people’s SE regarding their ability to control symptoms of their Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD). The participants were 16 patients attending physiotherapy clinics for treatment of BPD, and 10 control participants, recruited through a post-graduate class. Participants completed a Nijmegen questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale) and the SE scale, four days apart. Reliability of the SE scale was supported in the intraclass correlation value of .69 for the BPD population, and Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.84 and 0.80 for the two data completions. The Mann-Whitney U analysis supported a statistically significant difference between the scores of the BPD and control populations, which was also seen in the median scores (BPD population 53.5/90, control population 89.5/90). When a cut-off score of 75/90 was applied, the Fisher Exact test did not show a statistically significant correlation between participants’ scores in the SE scale, and either of the other scales. Similarly, the Spearman’s analysis did not show statistical significance comparing SE scores with the other questionnaires. The raw data showed a clear differentiation, however, therefore the lack of statistical significance may be due to the study being underpowered for such analysis. This study supports the SE scale shows potential for assessing SE in the population of people with BPD, and further research is required to confirm this.