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The Doctoral Theses collection contains digital copies of AUT doctoral theses deposited with the Library since 2004 and made available open access. All theses for doctorates awarded from 2007 onwards are required to be deposited in Tuwhera Open Theses unless subject to an embargo.
For theses submitted prior to 2007, open access was not mandatory, so only those theses for which the author has given consent are available in Tuwhera Open Theses. Where consent for open access has not been provided, the thesis is usually recorded in the AUT Library catalogue where the full text, if available, may be accessed with an AUT password. Other people should request an Interlibrary Loan through their library.
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- ItemConstructing, contesting and consuming New Zealand's tourism landscape: a history of Te Wairoa(Auckland University of Technology, 2004-01-01) Bremner, HamishThe thesis focuses on documentation regarding the historical growth of tourism at Te Wairoa, Rotorua, New Zealand. Te Wairoa acted as a gateway to Otukapuarangi and Te Tarata of Rotomahana which represented an iconic tourism landscape in the nineteenth century. A theoretical engagement with tourism studies and the utilisation of history as an analytical device reveals that the consumption of the tourism landscape is an ongoing, contested, and negotiated cultural construction of place.The history of tourism development at Te Wairoa exhibits the entrenchment of European colonial power in New Zealand. However, within the structures of colonial authority, strategies of survival for the colonised are employed. In this particular case, the strategies include the engagement with Western ethics of capitalism, the manipulation and appropriation of symbols of the 'other', and the control of access through land ownership. The economic and social development of Te Wairoa, based on a tourism economy, also highlights the existent tensions in both a colonial and post-colonial relationship in New Zealand.The research further argues that individual tourism sites reflect culturally ascribed values associated with place. As the combination of exogenous and endogenous social, cultural, political and economic forces evolve so to does the production and consumption of the tourism landscape. Evidence for these considerations is provided by publicly available historical material including archival documents, historical literature, contemporary accounts, newspapers, and government records. The result is an in-depth study which provides an original and thematic interpretation of the history of Te Wairoa as well as supporting a model for investigating change in the cultural construction of place.
- ItemWithin the web: the family/practitioner relationship in the context of chronic childhood illness(Auckland University of Technology, 2004-01-01) Dickinson, Annette RThis study explores the phenomenon of the relationships between practitioners and families who have a child with a chronic illness. Using a heremeneutic phenomenological method informed by the writings of Martin Heidegger [1889-1976] and Hans-Georg Gadamer [1900-2002], this study provides an understanding of the meaning of 'being in relationship' from the perspective of both families and practitioners.Study participants include ten family groups who have a child with a chronic illness and twelve practitioners from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, dietetics, physiotherapy and speech therapy who work with children with chronic illness. Narrative audiotaped interviewing was the means by which the participants told their stories about times that relationships worked well and when they did not. These stories uncover the every day realities of 'being in relationship' and provide another understanding of the relationship between family and practitioner.The findings of this thesis suggest that chronic childhood illness 'throws' families and practitioners together into a web of relationships that must work for the sake of the child. The relationship is primarily conducted between adults. Children are usually excluded. In order to understand and manage the child's illness, practitioners and families 'go around' and act 'in-between' relationships. While the quality of the relationship from the family perspective is not essential to the chronic illness journey, relationships are more successful when practitioners recognise the uniqueness of each family web. The nature of the relationship is often simple, yet it co-exists with complexity. This thesis proposes that a 'companion relationship' between practitioners and family may offer a more effective and satisfying way of working. It also challenges practitioners to consider the voice of children within health care relationships.
- ItemUncovering "regimes of truth": locating and defining discourses associated with hydro-electric development in New Zealand(Auckland University of Technology, 2004-01-01) Wells, Philippa Katherine
- ItemEffect of simulated altitude exposure on sea level performance(Auckland University of Technology, 2004-01-01) Hinckson, EricaExposure to natural altitude using the "live high-train low" method improves athletic endurance performance at sea level by 1-2%. This method can also be employed with hypoxic devices that simulate altitude, but there is limited and conflicting research on their efficacy. Consequently, three studies were undertaken to investigate changes in sea level performance of endurance runners following exposure to altitude simulated with hypoxic tents. The device was chosen because of its potential for incorporation into the athlete's routine. In Study 1, 10 runners received altitude simulated with hypoxic tents (~9 h overnight at 2500-3500 m) and trained at sea level, while 10 runners in the control group performed usual training. Athletes in both groups performed a lactate-threshold test, but only the altitude group performed a run to exhaustion. The effect on 4-mM lactate speed was unclear, owing to poor reliability of this measure. There was a 16% increase in time to exhaustion in the hypoxic conditioning group, equivalent to a 1.9% (90% likely limits, ±1.4%) increase in speed in a time trial. Effects on performance were not apparent four and eight weeks after use of the tents. To improve precision of the effect of the tents and to determine the effects on performance of different durations, a further controlled trial was performed. A reliability study (Study 2) was first conducted to investigate the potential for runs to exhaustion to provide reliable measures of performance. Eight runners performed a test consisting of three runs to exhaustion lasting ~2, ~4 and ~8 min on six occasions over 14 wk. The critical power and log-log models were used to provide factors for converting variability in time to exhaustion into variability in equivalent time-trial time. Variabilities in time to exhaustion expressed as coefficients of variation for predicted 800-3000 m timetrial times were ~1-3%. A crossover study (Study 3) was then conducted in which 11 athletes performed usual (control) training and usual training with altitude exposure by using tents for 25 ± 3 days (mean ± SD) for 8.1 ± 0.6 h.d-1, progressing from a simulated altitude of 2500 m to 3500 m above sea level. Washout period between control and altitude treatments was four weeks. Performance was assessed with treadmill runs to exhaustion as in Study 2. Improvements in mean predicted times (altitude-control) for standard competition distances of 800, 1500 and 3000 m derived from the runs to exhaustion were 1.0% (±1.3%), 1.4% (±1.2%) and 1.9% (±1.5%) respectively. There was some evidence that hypoxic exposure favoured those athletes carrying the I allele for angiotensin converting enzyme. In summary, the main finding from the series of studies is that hypoxic tents are likely to enhance sea level endurance running performance by ~1-2%.
- ItemThe relationship between objects and identity in occupational therapy: a dynamic balance of rationalism and romanticism(Auckland University of Technology, 2004-01-01) Hocking, ClareThis thesis uncovers the rational and Romantic assumptions about the relationship between objects and identity that are embedded in occupational therapy, and critiques current practice from that perspective. It is based on an initial assumption that there is in fact a relationship between people's identity and the objects they make, have, use and are associated with. This assumption is explored through an interpretive examination of the fields of literature that are commonly identified as informing occupational therapy, supplemented by selected popular literature. The exploration takes a philosophical approach, guided by notions from philosophical hermeneutics, including pre-understandings, the hermeneutic circle and fusion of horizons. The conclusion reached is that people informed by Western philosophies interpret the identity meanings of objects in both rational and Romantic ways. To inform the study, the nature of rationalism and Romanticism are then explained, and the implications of these philosophical traditions in relation to objects and identity are teased out. This interpretation is guided by a history of ideas methodology, which entails approaching historical texts from a new perspective, in this case the identity meanings of objects. Thus informed, occupational therapy literature, primarily that published in Britain between 1938 and 1962 is examined from the perspective of objects and identity. What is revealed is that rational and Romantic understandings of objects, and of patients' and their own identity are clearly discernible. Such understandings afforded early occupational therapists both ways to organise their growing knowledge of the therapeutic application of crafts and the transformative outcomes of occupational therapy intervention. Gradually however, factors both internal and external to the profession served to undermine therapists' Romanticism. Primary amongst these were World War II, which saw a redeployment of occupational therapists from mental health to physical rehabilitation settings; advances in rehabilitative medicine, which brought a reduction in secondary complications and the adoption of teamwork; and the development of new practice areas including domestic rehabilitation using gadgets to enhance function and pre-vocational rehabilitation. As a result, tensions between rational and Romantic understandings crystallised around two long-standing controversies. These were whether or not craft equipment such as weaving looms should be adapted to serve specific remedial purposes, and whether it was the process of making a crafted object or the quality of the finished product that was more important. In the event, these contested ideologies became largely irrelevant as craftwork was sidelined from mainstream practice. With it, occupational therapists' Romantic vision of transforming people's lives through creative activity also slipped away. Several reasons for this loss of one of the profession's founding philosophies are proposed. They include the substantial absence of the professions' philosophical foundations from its education, and the paucity of theory and research methodologies that might have informed the nature and process of transformative change that earlier occupational therapists had observed and reported. The thesis concludes by arguing for the importance of recovering a balance between rationalism and Romanticism. A call to action is issued, addressing change in educational practice, concerted research effort to identify and articulate transformative processes within occupational therapy, and political action focusing on the inclusion of Romantic perspectives within policy and strategic documents.
- ItemThe philosophy and practice of holistic health care(Auckland University of Technology, 2004-01-01) Nelson, Deborah AnnFor almost three decades 'holistic health care' has been a widely invoked term. It is called upon as an antidote to mechanistic science, as justification for the use of alternative therapies, as instruction to good practice and even as a boundary marker in establishing professional identity. In the service of these intentions it has assumed various meanings. The first aim of this study is to identify from the literature, the illusion of shared meaning that saturates this term and to expose the implications of this lack of clarity. The elusive nature of the meanings attributed to holism and the problem of determining an appropriate method of pursuing these meanings is addressed. A particular understanding of conceptual analysis and practical reasoning are defended as adequate tools. The group of ideas from which the term holism can be distinguished, individualism, dualism and reductionism, form the context of the examination of understandings of wholeness. Eight distinctions of wholeness are examined and the common conceptual feature of 'purpose' is suggested. This requires considerable justification which is provided by an exploration of the notion of 'partness'. Recourse to the seminal work of Smuts (1926) is sought and the derivation of the idea of holism from evolution theory is explored. A key understanding explored is the nature of emergent properties and their role in the holistic doctrine, 'the whole is more than the sum of the parts'. Employment of the word holism in social science, philosophy, and biology is examined and a number of fallacies about holism exposed. With a somewhat clearer understanding of holism, and a working notion of wholeness, theories of health are discussed as contenders for a philosophical basis for 'holistic health care'. While several show some congruence, it is argued that the Foundations Theory of Health can be shown to demonstrate the characteristics of work for wholeness identified in this work. The conclusion that holistic health care is in essence working creatively with incipient wholes, is explained and justified by a discussion about how a health worker might become more holistic in her practice.
- ItemVibration of branched circular cylindrical shells as applied to airway walls(Auckland University of Technology, 2005-01-01) Au, Pui MingThis research focuses on investigating the vibration characteristics of branched circular cylindrical shells with applications to airway passages. Analytical modelling is carried out based on Donnell-Mushtari equations of thin elastic membrane type of shells while numerical validation is conducted using the Finite Element Method (COSMOS/Works). Further validation of the results is performed using experimental investigation of tracheobronchial tissues dissected from pigs. The analytical, numerical and experimental results are in acceptable agreement. Further investigation of the vibration characteristics of the airways for cases which cannot be dealt with analytically is carried out using COSMOS/Works. Results show a strong trend relationship which suggests that the natural frequency of the trachea and the primary tracheobronchi is approximately 10 Hz. Radial resonances of lower bronchi are predictable through trends found in this work that the resonant frequency is a linear function in certain region of generations.
- ItemFuzzy ontology and intelligent systems for discovery of useful medical information(Auckland University of Technology, 2005-01-01) Parry, David TudorCurrently, reliable and appropriate medical information is difficult to find on the Internet. The potential for improvement in human health by the use of internet-based sources of information is potentially huge, as knowledge becomes more widely available, at much lower cost. Medical information has traditionally formed a large part of academic publishing. However, the increasing volume of available information, along with the demand for evidence based medicine makes Internet sources of information appear to be the only practical source of comprehensive and up-to date information. The aim of this work is to develop a system allowing groups of users to identify information that they find useful, and using those particular sources as examples develop an intelligent system that can classify new information sources in terms of their likely usefulness to such groups. Medical information sources are particularly interesting because they cover a very wide range of specialties, they require very strict quality control, and the consequence of error may be extremely serious, in addition, medical information sources are of increasing interest to the general public. This work covers the design, construction and testing of such a system and introduces two new concepts - document structure identification via information entropy and fuzzy ontology for knowledge representation. A mapping between query terms and members of ontology is usually a key part of any ontology enhanced searching tool. However many terms used in queries may be overloaded in terms of the ontology, which limits the potential use of automatic query expansion and refinement. In particular this problem affects information systems where different users are likely to expect different meanings for the same term. This thesis describes the derivation and use of a "Fuzzy Ontology" which uses fuzzy relations between components of the ontology in order to preserve a common structure. The concept is presented in the medical domain. Kolmogorov distance calculations are used to identify similarity between documents in terms of authorship, origin and topic. In addition structural measures such as paragraph tags were examined but found not to be effective in clustering documents. The thesis describes some theoretical and practical evaluation of these approaches in the context of a medical information retrieval system, designed to support ontology-based search refinement, relevance feedback and preference sharing between professional groups.
- ItemFamily factors in bilingual children's code-switching and language maintenance: a New Zealand case study(Auckland University of Technology, 2005-01-01) Yu, ShanjiangThe purpose of this study is to investigate family factors in relation to young Chinese immigrants' code-switching and language maintenance. Specific attention is given to children's code-switching behaviour and how parents respond and the effect of parental response upon children's language choice in any subsequent utterance. Attempts are also made to identify the family factors that might have an effect on making language choice. Data were collected monthly through naturalistic tape-recording of families' conversations for one calendar year. Recordings of every other month were transcribed and coded for analysis. A questionnaire was used with the children's parents to obtain general family background information as well as to compare the parents' language beliefs and their actual language behaviour in real life.Results indicated that within an average of 28.1 months of stay in New Zealand, the use of Mandarin Chinese, their ethnic language, was dramatically reduced. In typical family conversations, the parents were using Mandarin Chinese in only 75.6% of their conversational turns and that figure for the children was 65.1%. If the amount of mother tongue use at home is an indicator, then the speed of shift in these families investigated appears to be relatively fast. Few parents, however, felt that their children were using too much English or ever attempted to stop them doing this, despite the fact that all the parents claimed that they very much wanted their children to maintain the ethnic language and were fully aware of the importance of their role as the main input source of their ethnic language. This seems to suggest that the marketplace value of the mainstream language is overtaking the core value of their ethnic language.Results also showed that parental use of English caused a substantially increased use of English from their children. There tended to be an "upgrading" towards English in the children's language choice suggesting that code-switching could be a temporary stage for the children along the gradual process of language shift. On the other hand, the parents were also found using more English after their children's code-switching. One of the reasons for this might be that the parents want to improve their English and regard their children as an ideal person to practise English with.With regard to daily communication functions, results showed that children often resorted to English for daily speech acts indicating that language function replacement has occurred for many daily communicative functions resulting from a gradually reduced use of the ethnic language.Many family factors were found to be affecting language use in the families: the presence of grandparents and the decision to return to their birth country for residence in the future were clearly correlated with increased use of the ethnic language; the parents' level of English language, on the other hand, was found to be related to the amount of English used, though with exceptions.These results strongly suggest that English is taking over the family domains that used to belong to the ethnic language. Parents who want their children to maintain their ethnic language need to put daily effort into action. Without painstaking daily effort, language shift will and probably is happening no matter how strong their theoretical beliefs might be.
- ItemPreexercise strategies: the effects of warm-up, stretching, and massage on symptoms of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and performance(Auckland University of Technology, 2005-01-01) Weerapong, PornratshaneeThis thesis uncovers the rational and Romantic assumptions about the relationship between objects and identity that are embedded in occupational therapy, and critiques current practice from that perspective. It is based on an initial assumption that there is in fact a relationship between people's identity and the objects they make, have, use and are associated with. This assumption is explored through an interpretive examination of the fields of literature that are commonly identified as informing occupational therapy, supplemented by selected popular literature. The exploration takes a philosophical approach, guided by notions from philosophical hermeneutics, including pre-understandings, the hermeneutic circle and fusion of horizons. The conclusion reached is that people informed by Western philosophies interpret the identity meanings of objects in both rational and Romantic ways. To inform the study, the nature of rationalism and Romanticism are then explained, and the implications of these philosophical traditions in relation to objects and identity are teased out. This interpretation is guided by a history of ideas methodology, which entails approaching historical texts from a new perspective, in this case the identity meanings of objects. Thus informed, occupational therapy literature, primarily that published in Britain between 1938 and 1962 is examined from the perspective of objects and identity. What is revealed is that rational and Romantic understandings of objects, and of patients' and their own identity are clearly discernible. Such understandings afforded early occupational therapists both ways to organise their growing knowledge of the therapeutic application of crafts and the transformative outcomes of occupational therapy intervention. Gradually however, factors both internal and external to the profession served to undermine therapists' Romanticism. Primary amongst these were World War II, which saw a redeployment of occupational therapists from mental health to physical rehabilitation settings; advances in rehabilitative medicine, which brought a reduction in secondary complications and the adoption of teamwork; and the development of new practice areas including domestic rehabilitation using gadgets to enhance function and pre-vocational rehabilitation. As a result, tensions between rational and Romantic understandings crystallised around two long-standing controversies. These were whether or not craft equipment such as weaving looms should be adapted to serve specific remedial purposes, and whether it was the process of making a crafted object or the quality of the finished product that was more important. In the event, these contested ideologies became largely irrelevant as craftwork was sidelined from mainstream practice. With it, occupational therapists' Romantic vision of transforming people's lives through creative activity also slipped away. Several reasons for this loss of one of the profession's founding philosophies are proposed. They include the substantial absence of the professions' philosophical foundations from its education, and the paucity of theory and research methodologies that might have informed the nature and process of transformative change that earlier occupational therapists had observed and reported. The thesis concludes by arguing for the importance of recovering a balance between rationalism and Romanticism. A call to action is issued, addressing change in educational practice, concerted research effort to identify and articulate transformative processes within occupational therapy, and political action focusing on the inclusion of Romantic perspectives within policy and strategic documents.
- ItemModeling of an electroactive polymer hydrogel for optical applications(Auckland University of Technology, 2006-01-01) Paxton, Robert AlanIn this work a finite element model is proposed to describe the swelling of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels under the influence of an external electric field. The specific application of this model is for optical applications, but the design could be used equally well for other applications such as sensors and actuators.The model is proposed as five individual modules, which work in conjunction with each other but which can also function independently. This independence allows the model to provide intermediate results to the user, and also permits each module to be improved or adjusted individually without affecting the operation of the overall model. The first module is the Electrical module, which calculates the external electric field present in the hydrogel by solving Laplace's equation. The second module is the Chemical module, which uses the electric field to calculate the diffusion and migration of ions through the hydrogel/solvent regions. The third module is the Force module, which uses the change in ion concentrations to calculate the resulting change in osmotic pressure (force). This force is then used in the Mechanical module to calculate the deformation of the hydrogel, based on the assumption of linear elasticity. Finally, the fifth module is the Optical module, which uses the deformation to calculate the theoretical change in focal length.To verify the operation of the model, numerous experiments were conducted with the deformation of a poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel being measured under various external voltages with different electrode configurations. Overall, the model agrees quite well with the experimental results, but also highlights some interesting discrepancies that will need to be considered in future work. There is also some scope for improvement in the experimental method used, but again this is left for future work.
- ItemThe use of analyst-user cognitive style differentials to predict aspects of user satisfaction with information systems(Auckland University of Technology, 2006-01-01) Mullany, Michael JohnThis study was primarily an empirical investigation in the field of Information Systems (IS) and the related fields of occupational psychology and management. It focussed specifically on the concept of user satisfaction, the construct of cognitive style as applied to users and systems analysts, and their interrelationships. Prior studies were found rarely to investigate the changes in user satisfaction during system usage. Further, any reference to cognitive style in the IS literature proved to be sparse, open to question and discouraging in terms of its value. By developing and using a new instrument, the System Satisfaction Schedule, or SSS, the present study was able empirically to demonstrate clear patterns of changing user satisfaction during system usage. These were demonstrated, both as a general trend and in terms of its relationship to the cognitive styles of the key players (analyst and user) involved in system development and maintenance. Cognitive style was measured using Kirton's Adaption-innovation Inventory, or KAI. This study was thus able to suggest new rules for system development based on the assessments of the cognitive styles of both users and systems analysts. These rules focussed primarily on simple team choice: which analyst to put with which user. However, inferences for larger system development teams were drawn and suggestions for further research duly made. The present study thus also contributes to the successful practice of system development. To give effect to the above, this study set out to investigate empirically the way user satisfaction changes over 1½ to 2 years of system usage and, as mentioned above, the way user satisfaction is impacted by the cognitive styles of the user and the systems analyst. Most significantly, relationships were studied between user satisfaction and the difference in cognitive style between the analyst and user. It was found that user satisfaction generally rises linearly with usage, and that while the size of the analyst user cognitive differential does negatively impact user satisfaction over most of the time of system use, this effect is only particularly strong for two short periods; one within the first four months of usage and the other in the last three. From these results the new rules for system development mentioned above, followed. In terms of the decline of users' mean perceived severities of individual problems, the exponential decay and reciprocal models were found to fit the data the best. This study developed a new model for the motivation to use, develop or maintain a system (the Mechanical Model), based on its own results and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. In this, Herzberg's hygiene factors have been replaced with the concept of dissatisfiers. These are measured as expressions of dissatisfaction as and when they occur. Their use removes the researcher's need, when designing user satisfaction instruments, to speculate on complete lists of factors which may satisfy users, and which may date as technology and other contextual factors change.
- ItemSoft systems analysis of ecosystems(Auckland University of Technology, 2006-09-20) Shanmuganathan, SThis research is a case study evaluation of the use of self-organising map (SOM) techniques for ecosystem modelling to overcome the perceived inadequacies with conventional ecological data analysis methods. SOMs provide an analytical method within the connectionist paradigms of artificial neural networks (ANNs), developed from concepts that evolved from late twentieth century neuro-physiological experiments on the cortex cells of the human brain. The rate and extent at which humans influence environmental deterioration with commensurate biodiversity loss is a cause for major concern and to prevent further degradation by human impact, parsimonious models are urgently needed. Indeed, the need for better modelling techniques has never been so great. Ecologists and many national and international bodies see the situation as 'significantly critical' for the conservation of our global ecosystem to foster the continued wellbeing of humanity on this earth.The thesis investigates and further refines SOM based exploratory data analysis methods for modelling naturally evolving, highly diverse and extremely complex ecosystems. Earlier studies provide evidence on SOM ability to analyse complex forest and freshwater biological community structures at limited scales. On the other hand, growing concerns over conventional methods, their soundness and ability to model large volumes of data are seen as of little use, leading to arguments on the results derived from them. Case study chapters illustrate how SOM methods could be best applied to analyse often 'cryptic' ecosystems in a manner similar to that applied in modelling highly complex and diverse industrial system dynamics. Furthermore, SOM based data clustering methods, used for financial data analysis are investigated for integrated analysis of ecological and economic system data to study the effects of urbanisation on natural habitats.SOM approaches prove to be an excellent tool for analysing the changes within physical system variables and their effects on the biological systems analysed. The Long Bay-Okura Marine Reserve case study elaborates on how SOM based approaches could be best applied to model the reserve's intertidal zone with available numeric data. SOM maps depicted the characteristic microclimate within this zone from ecological monitoring data of physical attributes, without any geographical data being added. This kind of feature extraction from raw data is found to be useful and is applied to two more case studies to study the slow variables of ecosystems, such as population dynamics, and to establish their correlation with environmental variations. SOM maps are found to be capable of distinguishing the human induced variations from that of natural/ global variations, at different scales (site, regional and global) and levels using regional and global data. Hence, SOM approaches prove to be capable of modelling complex natural systems incorporating their spatial and temporal variations using the available monitoring data, this is a major advantage observed with SOM analyses.In the third case study, potential use of SOM techniques to analyse global trends on the effects of urbanisation in environmental and biological systems are explored using the World Bank's statistical data for different countries. Many state and international institutions, concerned over global environmental issues, have made attempts to develop indicators to assess the conditions of different ecosystems. The enhancements with SOM approaches against the currently recommended indicator system based on information pyramid and pressure-state-response (PSR) models are elaborated upon.The research results of SOM methods for ecosystem modelling, similar to that applied to industrial process modelling and financial system analysis show potential. SOM approaches (i.e. cluster, dependent component, decision system and trajectories/ time series analyses) provide a means for feature extraction from the available numeric data at different levels and scales, fulfilling the urgent need for modelling tools to conserve our global ecosystem. They can be used to bridge the gap in converting raw data into knowledge to inform sustainable ecosystem management. Increasingly, traditional methods based on Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) designs and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are seen to be unsuitable for ecological data analysis, as they are unable to detect human induced environmental impacts from that of a natural cause. This thesis proves that SOM techniques could be applied to modelling not only a natural systems complexity but also its functioning and dynamics, incorporating spatial as well as temporal variations, to overcome the constraints with conventional methods as applied in other stated disciplines.
- ItemTalking Pictures: A Creative Utilization of Structural and Aesthetic Profiles from Narrative Music Videos and Television Commercials in a Non-Spoken Film Text(Auckland University of Technology, 2006-11-08) Ings, WelbyThis thesis is about storytelling. It is presented in three parts, a major output with two supporting components. The first and primary section is the short film. The second is an exhibition of images, props, and environments created for the work. The third is the exegesis. Situated as creative practice, the project tests and develops structural and aesthetic hypotheses in the creation of a non-spoken film text. These hypotheses are shaped by considerations from two areas.The first is design for narrative music video. An analysis of selected texts leads to a creative reconsideration of the role and profile of imagery, space, time, sound, enigma, closure, and narrative voice. The second area is typography. Reflecting on the anti-language, bogspeak, and the culture that has given rise to its development, the thesis develops inaudible typographical voices that operate as narrative contributions to the film.These two areas of consideration support a unique way of telling stories. This is significant because emerging uses of short film now take these texts beyond the theatre. They are marketed as commercially available stories in their own right. As distribution companies are formatting them on DVDs, viewers are seeing these stories not once, but many times. It is useful therefore, for the design of such texts to consider alternative methods of narration that might work to preserve the durability and complexity of their stories as they unravel over repeated screenings.
- ItemBalancing recognition and disrespect: recovery as the process of identity formation: a New Zealand study of how services shape recovery from sexual abuse(Auckland University of Technology, 2007) Frerichs, GudrunThis study explored how the recovery of victims of sexual abuse is shaped by services available. Using the philosophical underpinnings of critical theory within the framework of Honneth's recognition theory this study provides an understanding of participants' experiences and views of recovery from sexual abuse. The study was conducted with ten adult survivors of sexual abuse using semi-structured individual interviews and two focus groups with eight service providers. The analysis identified that the recovery from sexual abuse is the development of a positive sense of identity reflected by participants' self-confidence, self-respect, and self-esteem. In this study this is described as the process of identity formation. Services shaped recovery from sexual abuse by providing experiences of recognition and disrespect. Recognition was given in the form of emotional support and care, cognitive respect, and social esteem that led to an improvement of participants' functioning. Disrespect was perceived by participants as they struggled with the invisibility of sexual abuse, with inequality, and with the lack of understanding, through which their overall functioning deteriorated. Recovery emerged as a dynamic process that, most of all, required from services that they provide experiences of recognition and from survivors that they accurately perceive that recognition was given to them. For recovery to occur, participants needed to balance experiences of recognition and disrespect, a process in which they needed to surrender the longing for the entirely good and benign caregiver and accept that both 'good' and 'bad' qualities reside in each caregiver, agency, therapist, or generally the 'other'. This balancing resulted in the development of self-confidence, self-respect, and self-esteem. Recovery was experienced by participants when they were able to resist disrespect and either engaged in fighting for their rights or removing themselves from situations in which their rights could be violated. Only by having a practical experience of being able to protect their physical and psychological integrity did participants become aware that they had recovered from the legacies of sexual abuse and could proceed with their lives without professional assistance.
- ItemTe hau ora o naga kaumatau o Tuhoe: a study of Tuhoe kaumatau mental wellness(Auckland University of Technology, 2007-01-17) McNeill, HinematauTuhoe is considered to be one of the last bastions of 'traditional' Maori language and culture. The main purpose of the research was to examine the mental health status of Tuhoe kaumatua (elderly). Even before the research was undertaken anecdotal evidence indicated that a significant feature of the Tuhoe aging population was the apparent absence of mental health problems. Kaumatua are however particularly susceptible to physical diseases that afflict modern Maori, regardless of geography or tribal origin. To explore the health status of Tuhoe kaumatua, the study needed to take into account external cultural influences and, in particular, the colonial experience. This justifies a comprehensive theoretical approach that includes European philosophical influences which, it will be argued, have impacted on Maori lifeways. Notwithstanding, the study draws principally on Maori conceptualisations of the world, mainly because kaumatua mental wellness was considered to be inextricable to Tuhoe language and culture. The research attempted to isolate those factors that sustain kaumatua mental wellness. In determining the causal factors of wellness it soon became apparent that the practice of traditional Maori healing, embedded in ancient esoteric knowledge, was of considerable significance. This feature is apparent from the outset. The opening karakia of the Tuhoe tohunga (specialist/healer), Hohepa Kereopa invokes ancient Maori atua (Gods) and endows the work with an aura of spiritual protection. He has stipulated that both the karakia (prayer) and mihi (greeting) remain in Maori (Tuhoe dialect) because he believes that the essence of these rituals are best preserved in the Maori language. Throughout this entire body of work Hohepa Kereopa maintains a discernible and enduring presence.
- ItemEthical issues and workplace problems in commercial hospitality: a New Zealand study(Auckland University of Technology, 2007-05-24) Poulston, Jill MabelThis study explores a world of pretence and glamour, uncovering and explaining the causes of workplace problems and dubious practices lying behind the cheerful facade of commercial hospitality. Such an exploration necessarily extends into unethical, unsafe and unfair practices, eight of which are selected for detailed analysis. These are: working in smoke, sexual harassment, constructive dismissal, staffing levels, training, illegal alcohol service, poor food hygiene, and theft. Some of these problems or practices are deliberately destructive (and are therefore considered as ethical issues), some can cause harm (so are health and safety issues), and some concern the way staff are managed (and are therefore labour issues). The persistent focus however, is the avoidable harm and wrongdoing that can occur where groups of people are controlled by a few. Several themes are explored, in particular the causes of poor ethical standards and management's influence on these standards. The hypotheses address the behaviour of hospitality workers generally, but managers in particular, as they are ultimately responsible for workplace conduct, and are therefore best placed to make change. Ethical standards are investigated by measuring the actual and perceived incidence, tolerance and management acceptance of problems according to individuals' demographic attributes. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data enables a thorough and scientific analysis of practices in a domain well known for persistent social problems, with the specific intention of identifying causes, and therefore solutions. The following hypotheses are examined: H1) Unethical behaviour is common in hospitality; H2) Management is aware of unethical behaviour in hospitality; H3) Management actively or passively supports unethical behaviour in hospitality, and H4) Management's support is a cause of unethical behaviour. Although unethical practices are found to be common, many managers are unaware of this, while some are significant causes of sexual harassment, constructive dismissals and poor standards of training. Observations include the influence of codes of ethics on undesirable behaviours such as sexual harassment, the influence of social consensus on workplace behaviour, and the profound unhappiness of many hospitality employees. The causes of workplace problems and unethical behaviour are found to be low pay and poor training. A principle of reciprocated loyalty is proposed, based on the relationships identified between employer commitment and employee behaviour, and informed by mechanism theory, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is the first major analysis of workplace issues in New Zealand hospitality, and offers solutions to problems such as theft, sexual harassment and understaffing, that significantly undermine the industry's credibility and potential for success.
- ItemThe impact of trade liberalisation on economic structure and performance: case of the OECS(Auckland University of Technology, 2007-05-28) Samuel, ThomasIn keeping with global liberalisation trends and impelled by external liberalisation in terms of eroding preferential treatment in their principal export markets, the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)1 together with the wider Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM) region, has since 1993 embraced a policy of trade liberalisation as a strategy for growth and development. In large measure this was done through the phased implementation of a Common External Tariff (CET) involving a progressive lowering of tariff rates over the period, 1993-1998. The theoretical arguments in support of this policy change are based on the assumption of a positive link between trade liberalisation and economic growth. They contend that trade reforms that increase the outward-orientation/openness of trade regimes would result in structural change that reallocate resources in line with comparative advantage leading to exportled growth. This will then be followed by faster economic growth as countries benefit from efficiency gains, technology spillovers and other positive externalities.The thesis empirically assesses these claims against the nature of the impact of trade liberalisation on: (i) the export structure of the OECS and (ii) its economic growth performance. Using a comparative analysis in a dichotomous framework of ten-years before and after the policy reforms we find that in general the predictions of the underlying neo-classical trade model are not supported by the empirical evidence. There were indications of structural changes in exports in terms of reduced specialisation and competitiveness of traditional sectors and a steady shift of the macro-economy away from commodity production both agriculture and manufacturing towards services. Meanwhile the evidence suggests a revenue-neutral fiscal impact and no indication of systematic increase in technology transfer over the post-reform period.Using alternative estimation specifications in a single or simultaneous framework with and without fixed effects in a panel data setting, trade liberalisation was repeatedly found to be negatively associated with growth. In contrast openness was found to be positively correlated with both growth and export performance. At best a J-curve type impact of trade reforms on economic growth is deduced suggesting a long period of adjustment. However prospects for sustained growth seem remote on current indications suggesting the need for a reform of the international trade rules to cater to the special needs of LDCs and SIDS. In this pursuit a plausible alternative approach to the mode of implementation of trade liberalisation in is presented.
- ItemTransport-related physical activity, health outcomes, and urban design: descriptive evidence(Auckland University of Technology, 2007-09-09) Badland, Hannah MEnvironments that support physical activity (PA) engagement are now seen as an important part of the solution for accumulating daily physical activity which confers health benefits, particularly transport-related PA (TPA). Despite this recognition, understanding the determinants of health-related PA has traditionally focused on identifying associations between the social environment and non-specific PA domains. As such, prior to commencing this thesis little was known about the relationships between the built environment and overall PA engagement within the New Zealand context. Little was also known about associations between TPA attitudes and behaviours, and urban design. This research sought to overcome this paucity of knowledge by investigating associations between overall PA and TPA engagement and perceptions, health outcomes, urban design, and socio-demographic variables from a public health perspective. The body of research was initiated with two literature reviews that formed the context for the following six empirical chapters. Data in the empirical chapters were drawn from three self-report surveys using adult samples. The research commenced by examining associations between urban design and overall PA engagement, and then narrowed towards TPA-specific relationships. TPA relationships were identified through the development and implementation of a reliable survey that captured associated behaviours and attitudes. Several new findings were drawn from this body of work. Overall, 21% of adults recognised they could replace automobile journeys on at least two days per week, and walking was deemed an acceptable travel alternative. Adult TPA engagement levels were low; 7% commuted to place of work/study and 32% travelled to the convenience shop by TPA modes. Furthermore, when compared with those who commuted to an occupation by TPA, respondents who used motorised travel were less likely to be classified as active (odds ratio (OR)=0.5) and be of normal body mass index (OR=0.5). No significant health relationships existed for convenience shop travel. As well, 4% of adults reported no automobile availability. When this group was compared with those with unrestricted automobile availability, they were less likely to be classified as active (OR=0.3), but were more likely to engage in TPA modes to access destinations (occupation, OR=6.3; convenience shop, OR=9.8). Occupation-related commute distances also revealed interesting findings. Overall, 50% of respondents perceived they could, and 10% of the sample actually did, commute by TPA modes for distances less than five kilometres, and relationships were strongly mediated by distance. Other urban design variables were objectively assessed with TPA engagement for occupation-related commute distances less than five kilometres. Those who travelled along the most connected street networks were more likely to engage in TPA modes (OR=6.9) when compared with respondents travelling along the least connected networks. No relationships were found with other urban design variables and TPA engagement.This research substantially contributes to this research area by identifying associations between overall PA and TPA engagement and perceptions with urban design. It is likely that shifting the perceptions of adults who recognise they can employ TPA modes, into actual TPA engagement will result in promising population health gains. Future PA initiatives with adults should consider promoting walking for transport as a sustainable solution. A lack of TPA interventions is evident; however, methodological issues need to be resolved before developing such initiatives. Although strategies aimed towards changing perceptions may be valuable for future TPA interventions, it is likely macro-scale urban design modifications (e.g., improved job-housing balance, highly-grained street networks) and legislation (e.g., automobile restrictions) will have the greatest success for increasing TPA engagement in the adult population.
- ItemThere's no meaning in chocolate: a narrative study of women's journeys beyond the disruption of depression(Auckland University of Technology, 2007-09-24) Wilson, Jan DProfessional treatment, mainly medical and psychological, dominates research and clinical practice concerning women and their recovery from depression. This thesis challenges the assumption that women cannot be 'experts' actively involved in their own recovery. This study explored the narratives of eighteen women in Aotearoa New Zealand whose lives had been seriously disrupted by depression. They had found ways other than, or in addition to, professional solutions that helped them to live undisrupted meaningful lives. The research used a narrative inquiry approach informed by authors from across the social sciences including Arthur Frank, Jerome Bruner and Rivka Tuval-Mashiach. The underpinning social constructionist understanding of depression is informed by the work of Jane Ussher and Janet Stoppard. The women whose individual narratives provide the core data for the study ranged in age from 32 to 70 years at the time they told their stories. Their lives had been disrupted by depression at different times during the last 50 years of the twentieth century. Five of the women met as a group with the researcher as the analysis began, and their ideas informed significant aspects of the conclusions. The women had all experienced major depressive disorder, although this was not always formally diagnosed. Their recovery had involved a range of responses from outside the professional mainstream including physical, mental, social and spiritual aspects. Each woman had sought and found a 'formula' that was 'right' for her. The narratives showed all the women talked of their experience with depression and recovery in an holistic and contextualised way. They all talked about 'chocolate' solutions which provided symptom relief, and 'deeper' and often more complex sets of solutions which enabled them to discover or re-discover meaningful ways to live. Meaning-making often involved growing spiritual or transpersonal awareness in the broadest sense. A surprising finding was that the patterns of recovery were not related to the severity of the depression at the worst time. Rather, it emerged that the ways the women talked about their recovery journeys mirrored their stories of the 'jolly good reasons' why they were depressed; the more complex and lengthy the story leading up to the worst times, the more complex the formulae required for recovery. The implications of the research for clinical practice and for policy makers are that depression and recovery need to be seen as gendered, contextualised, and holistic. Women need opportunities to discover and take advantage of a range of 'things' so that they can find their own 'right formula' for recovery. This formula may involve professional treatment including anti-depressant medication and psychological therapy, but it is likely to involve many other things as well. This study challenges the notion that recovery needs to be guided by a professional expert, and creates hope for women being able to learn from each other's experiences.