Investigating the Effectiveness of Adopting Building Information Modelling for Refurbishment of Complex Buildings; Case Study of Auckland
The adoption of building information modelling (BIM) is relatively new to the refurbishment of existing building projects. As a result, the uptake and delivery have been recently reported to be slow for refurbishment projects. Low adoption of BIM is suggested to be due to fragmented projects, isolation, lack of collaboration information sharing in the construction firms. In addition, the refurbishment projects are risky, and very complex in nature. However, some of these projects had reported substantial project delays, significant cost overruns twice the budget, poor stakeholder engagement, dissatisfaction of project outcome by the refurbishment stakeholders. Consequently, the adoption of BIM for complex refurbishment projects is dependent on the project stakeholders’ decisions. Although the project stakeholders have diverse backgrounds and interests, they can be independent to each other but having intricate relationships and interactions. In this regard, analysing and aligning the project stakeholders’ interactions can bring about an environment where BIM can be implemented. Since these interactions can constitute the norms, values and perception of stakeholders, the impact and interactions of stakeholders can therefore be analysed from the network perspectives. Therefore, the study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of BIM adoption decisions for complex refurbishment project in the New Zealand context. The study is thesis by manuscript method, hence, each of the manuscript describes fully the analysis approach. Although, the data collection where divided into 4 stages, these includes the preliminary stage, the interview stage, the survey/questionnaire stage and the focus group stage, each of these stages are reflected on different chapters as contained in the thesis. A case study is adopted during the preliminary studies which allowed a snowball methodology to identify hidden population of the research participants. The participants are mainly from Auckland and involves stakeholders who have participated previously in a refurbishment project which was adopted as the case study. The key findings in the study include the main environmental factors that impact refurbishment project stakeholders to adopt BIM in New Zealand, the risk factors that impact project stakeholders role towards BIM adoption for refurbishment project; identification of refurbishment project attributes; and overall validation of factors and provision of solution (optimisation) for adoption of BIM for refurbishment project. The validation of the findings, including identification of real BIM benefits for refurbishment projects using error management and sensitivity analysis indicates that BIM adoption for refurbishment project is feasible through the healthy interaction of the project stakeholders. The findings revealed that the main influence factor is not the cost, which is in consistent with previous study, but rather indicate that it is about cost perception regarding BIM. Finally, the study offered solutions to improve BIM adoption for refurbishment projects discussed in the focus group meeting chapter. Recommendation are given followed by the conclusion. The study provides knowledge on real benefits of BIM and how to optimise the factors found in this study which can either positively or negatively influence BIM adoption.