Modeling and Investigation on the Performance Enhancement of Hovering UAV-Based FSO Relay Optical Wireless Communication Systems Under Pointing Errors and Atmospheric Turbulence Effects

aut.relation.journalOptical and Quantum Electronics
dc.contributor.authorHayal, MR
dc.contributor.authorElsayed, EE
dc.contributor.authorKakati, D
dc.contributor.authorSingh, M
dc.contributor.authorElfikky, A
dc.contributor.authorBoghdady, AI
dc.contributor.authorGrover, A
dc.contributor.authorMehta, S
dc.contributor.authorMohsan, SAH
dc.contributor.authorNurhidayat, I
dc.description.abstractThis paper investigates and enhances unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay-assisted free-space optics (FSO) optical wireless communication (OWC) systems under the effects of pointing errors (PEs) and atmospheric turbulences (ATs). The incorporation of UAVs as buffer-aided moving relays in the conventional FSO (CFSO) relay-assisted systems is proposed for enhancing the performance of PEs through AT. Using M-PSK (phase shift keying) and M-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), the impact of PEs on transmission quality is evaluated in this work. We evaluate and optimize the symbol error rate, outage probability (OP), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the UAV-to-ground station-based FSO communications systems. The spatial diversity-based relay-assisted CFSO systems can enhance the performance of the UAV-UAV FSO links. In this paper, a new FSO (NFSO) channel model for the hovering UAV-FSO OWC fluctuations under the PEs, AT effects, jitter, deviation, receiving an error, and wind resistance effects are established. To improve the performance of hovering UAV-based FSO relay OWC systems. We reduce the influence of UAV-FSO OWC fluctuations under PEs and AT effects. By receiving incoherent signals at various locations, the spatial diversity-based relay-assisted NFSO systems can significantly increase the system's redundancy and enhance connection stability. Numerical results show that to achieve a bit-error-rate (BER) of ≤ 10 - 5 , the required SNR is ≥ 23 dB when the wind variance of the UAVs σα2 increases from 0 to 7 mrad with FSO link distance L = 2000 m. The required SNR is ≥ 25 dB when the wind variance σα2 is 1 mrad at an OP of 10 - 6 . To obtain an average BER of 10 - 6 , the SNR should be 16.23 dB, 17.64 dB, and 21.45 dB when σα2 is 0 mrad, 1 mrad, and 2 mrad, respectively. Using 8-PSK modulation without PEs requires 23.5 dB at BER of 10 - 8 while 16-QAM without PEs requires 26.5 dB to maintain the same BER of 10 - 8 . Compared with 16-QAM without PEs, the SNR gain of 8-PSK without PEs is 3 dB. The results show the relay-assisted UAV-FSO system with five stationary relays can achieve BER 10 - 8 at 25 dB SNR in the ideal case and 10 - 5 at 27 dB SNR with AT and PE at FSO length 1000 m. The results show the relay UAV-FSO system outperforms the CFSO at the BER and SNR performance. The effects of UAV’FSO s fluctuation increase when the UAV-FSO link length, L fso increases. The results of the weak turbulence achieve better SER compared with MT and ST. The obtained results show that decreasing L fso can compensate for the effects of UAV-FSO link fluctuation on the proposed system. Finally, we investigated the CFSO relay-assisted UAV-FSO system with aided NFSO-UAVs spatial diversity-based relay-based on NFSO OWC and revealed the benefits of the resulting hybrid architecture.
dc.identifier.citationOptical and Quantum Electronics, ISSN: 0306-8919 (Print); 1572-817X (Online), Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 55(7), 625-. doi: 10.1007/s11082-023-04772-2
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subject5108 Quantum Physics
dc.subject5102 Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
dc.subject51 Physical Sciences
dc.subject7 Affordable and Clean Energy
dc.subject0205 Optical Physics
dc.subject0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
dc.subjectOptoelectronics & Photonics
dc.subject5102 Atomic, molecular and optical physics
dc.subject5108 Quantum physics
dc.titleModeling and Investigation on the Performance Enhancement of Hovering UAV-Based FSO Relay Optical Wireless Communication Systems Under Pointing Errors and Atmospheric Turbulence Effects
dc.typeJournal Article
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