Validation of Two Patient Self-report Questionnaires Measuring Cultural Responsiveness of Physiotherapists Practising in New Zealand
Background: The importance of cultural competence for the safe and effective practice of physiotherapy is widely acknowledged. Cultural competence is recognised by the Physiotherapy Board of Aotearoa New Zealand as a prerequisite for professional registration as a physiotherapist. To date, there is no known assessment tool in New Zealand to accurately measure the level of a physiotherapist’s cultural competence.
Aim: To investigate the structure, validity and the internal consistency of two minimally adapted existing overseas culturally-based questionnaires to evaluate patient perceptions of their physiotherapists’ cultural responsiveness to their individual needs within a New Zealand context. The Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Provider Inventory – Patient Form (T-CSHPI-PF) and the Healthcare Provider Cultural Competency Survey (HPCCS).
Methods: One hundred and fifty-eight participants from seven private musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinics completed culturally-based questionnaires on cultural sensitivity and cultural competency. The structure of these questionnaires was evaluated using factor analysis and validated with a patient satisfaction scale and patient adherence measure.
Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCPI-PF and HPCCS revealed that they have three factors and two factors respectively, both with high internal consistency and validity. Both the T-CSHCPI-PF and HPCCS have moderate to strong correlations with the PSPECS, but not with the RAdMAT. Conclusions: The T-CSHCPI-PF and HPCCS questionnaires address some of the limitations in the measurement of physiotherapist’s cultural responsiveness. Neither questionnaire would be an appropriate or valid standardised tool for use in physiotherapy clinics in New Zealand in their current form. Further research is therefore required.