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dc.contributor.authorHume, PAen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorLorimer, AVen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGriffiths, PCen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCarlson, Ien_NZ
dc.contributor.authorLamont, Men_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-29T04:17:56Z
dc.date.available2016-01-29T04:17:56Z
dc.date.copyright2015en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationSports Medicine, vol.45(8), pp.1175 - 1190en_NZ
dc.identifier.issn0112-1642en_NZ
dc.identifier.issn1179-2035en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/9454
dc.description.abstractBackground: Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. Objective: For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Methods: Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. Results: More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90 % CI 2.15–3.44, 99 % most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90 % CI 2.08–3.40, 99 % harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90 % CI 1.98–3.37, 99 % harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90 % CI 1.43–5.07, 97 % harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90 % CI 0.51–0.66, 99 % most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90 % CI 0.23–0.47, 99 % beneficial). Discussion: The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon’s matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Conclusion: Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures in recreational snow sports was for the use of helmets and wrist guards and to address low visibility issues via weather reports and signage.en_NZ
dc.languageengen_NZ
dc.publisherSpringer International Publishingen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0334-7
dc.rightsAn author may self-archive an author-created version of his/her article on his/her own website and or in his/her institutional repository. He/she may also deposit this version on his/her funder’s or funder’s designated repository at the funder’s request or as a result of a legal obligation, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after official publication. He/ she may not use the publisher's PDF version, which is posted on www.springerlink.com, for the purpose of self-archiving or deposit. Furthermore, the author may only post his/her version provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at www.springerlink.com”. (Please also see Publisher’s Version and Citation).
dc.titleRecreational snow-sports injury risk factors and countermeasures: a meta-analysis review and Haddon Matrix Evaluationen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s40279-015-0334-7en_NZ
aut.relation.endpage1190
aut.relation.issue8en_NZ
aut.relation.startpage1175
aut.relation.volume45en_NZ
pubs.elements-id183248


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