Designing Ecosystem Business Models for Data-Driven Organisations Using Open Government Data

Mokobombang, Novy Nur Rahmillah Ayu
Gutierrez, Jairo
Petrova, Krassie
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Doctor of Philosophy
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Auckland University of Technology

Open Government Data (OGD) is government information accessible to the public for viewing, reuse, and redistribution. OGD can facilitate a variety of business innovations for those that publish, utilise, and build OGD-related services. OGD efforts shift the focus of government policy from inside to outward. Good OGD benefits the economy and the community. Most nations have developed OGD initiatives from the top down, limiting information flow between the public and government. Moreover, the government possesses vast quantities of high-quality operational data, making it difficult to assess or conceptualise the benefits of publicising this data.

The study examined how government agencies develop, deliver, and capture the value of OGD over time to data users, such as Data-driven organisations (DDOs). DDOs use OGD as a cost-effective source to build a foundational layer of intrinsic value. Because the current study focuses less on business models, no thorough research on DDO business models across industries using OGD exists. This study designed ecosystem business models for a subset of DDOs that use OGD to improve their services. Ecosystem business models are developed for DDOs that use OGD to improve their services.

This study developed four research questions. First, define the value-creating roles that different participants in Open Government Data and data-driven organisations use to collaborate in the OGD initiative. Second, finding government agencies and data-driven organisations’ motivations for publishing and utilising Open Government Data. Third, addressing how to design new ecosystem business models for an ecosystem that is not mature yet. Fourth, investigate how one designs ecosystem business models for Data-driven organisations using Open Government Data and unlock open data potential benefits for all actors. To answer the research questions, this study included in-depth interviews, website searches, and documentation studies to acquire information on OGD Initiatives in New Zealand and DDO's ecosystem business models. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to locate participants with relevant expertise and background. I used semi-structured interviews to get participants' in-depth opinions of New Zealand's OGD programme and ecosystem to get a representative sample from government agencies, DDOs, and other relevant actors.

Data were collected in two stages in New Zealand between July 2019 and January 2021 to understand the phenomenon and offer reliable findings. The first stage involved interviewing ten people from six government agencies, two DDOs, and one IT company. Second, secondary data from government and private sources were synthesised.

This study adopts a multiple case study Constructivism paradigm. The four-cycle multiple case studies provide various perspectives on individuals, actions, policies, documents, and circumstances in order to find and comprehend divergent perspectives. Three case studies are deductively and inductively coded in the first two cycles. Then, a two-cycle cross-case analysis validated the coding maps of the three case studies. In the final cycle, case study findings were triangulated with secondary data to generate several themes. Multiple case study methodologies utilise thematic analysis to generate coding clusters and maps to uncover and explain content themes or patterns. It assists me in linking thoughts and comparing redundant facts. The analysis of both primary and secondary data was conducted using QSR NVivo Version 12.

A comprehensive analysis of the multiple case study findings and the thematic maps of the three case studies relate these findings to RQ1 and RQ2 and provides the fundamental concept for creating ecosystem business models to address RQ3 and RQ4. Case studies show that government agencies and IT companies play key roles in the OGD ecosystem along the path to data availability. The OGD ecosystem encourages collaboration among all actors, especially value-creation and value-capture actors. OGD value is created through a data value chain. Thematic analysis found that government agencies and DDOs use OGD for diverse motivations. Access to large amounts of OGD has helped build new capabilities. The findings emphasise the economic value that was tapped by building services on top of open data. Implementing OGD improves transparency by providing access to government-held information. It will improve the public's understanding of government actions and government decision-making.

Furthermore, the findings suggest that publishing government data is the greatest approach to boosting OGD use. Hence the New Zealand OGD initiative proactively published data as 2022 has four times as many datasets as 2018. To match supply-demand data, allows the public to request government datasets. By integrating their data with OGD, data-driven companies can produce product/service innovations due to essential sources such as experienced humans, an online database system, and significant datasets. A data-driven organisation tried to unlock OGD's value based on its motives, objectives, and expected outcomes. Thus, data-driven organisations coupled OGD with their data to create goods or services with extra value.

I construct an enhanced logic model based on the model used to summarise the New Zealand Open Government Data initiative's ecosystem. The model allows the government to analyse if its data gathering and opening operations match OGD's goals to establish commercial models for an immature ecosystem. The logic model develops hypotheses on ecosystem-driven business model development. It helps detect gaps, organises new portions of each component, and communicates the strategy to actors and other stakeholders.

Furthermore, I designed an Ecosystem Business Model Canvas (EBMC) as an extended version of the BMC template by Osterwalder, with three extra elements: networks and relationships, customer motivation, and customer requests and feedback. The EBMC helps New Zealand OGD actors examine their ecosystems, growth potential, and customer/client impact. Based on the EBMC, four types of DDOs' ecosystem business models and value-stream diagrams were developed to enable sustainable collaboration and partnership in the OGD initiative ecosystem.

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