Evaluation of Liquefaction Properties of East Coast Sand of New Zealand Mixed with Varied Kaolinite Contents Using the Dynamically Induced Porewater Pressure Characteristics
In earthquake geotechnical engineering, physical model experiments have proven to be significant and valuable in understanding the complex physics and engineering behaviors of prototype undrained soils in fields. An executed literature review indicated that large-scale physical model testing, such as shaking table (ST) and centrifuge devices, have associated advantages and limitations. The current paper presents the design, fabrication, and calibration of a 600N-capacity, small-scale, one-directional (1-D) laboratory ST device that enables quick and valuable assessment of soil liquefaction mechanisms. The dynamically induced porewater pressure (PWP) generation characteristics of sand soil mixed with different percentage weights of clay were evaluated and illustrated as a case study for testing the ST device’s performance. The east coast sand (ECS) of New Zealand’s North Island was mixed with different percentages of kaolinite clay to produce five variants of ECS (00, 05, 10, 20, 25, and 30). Three input sine wave ground motions of a constant frequency of 10 Hz and amplitudes of 2, 3, and 4 were applied and classified in the current study as low, intermediate, and moderate ground motions, respectively, to evaluate the evolution of the dynamic excess pore pressures in the soil samples. The results indicated that the clean ECS and mixed samples with lower clay content (ECS00, ECS05, ECS10, and ECS15) produced the highest excess PWP throughout the three shaking cycles, with higher tendencies of contraction and liquefaction properties. On the other hand, soil samples with a higher percentage of clay (ECS20 and ECS20) yielded the lowest PWP, with softening and dilative properties.