Characterisation of Korean Rice Wine (Makgeolli) Prepared by Different Processing Methods

Wong, B
Muchangi, K
Quach, E
Chen, T
Owens, A
Otter, D
Phillips, M
Kam, R
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Journal Article
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Elsevier BV

Four methods of preparing makgeolli, a traditional Korean turbid rice wine, were reported in this study. The four processing routes include single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of glutinous rice with nuruk – a Korean starter culture (1SF-N), single-stage fermentation with nuruk and yeast (1SF-YN), two-stage fermentation (2SF) and three-stage fermentation (3SF). Chemical analysis was used to determine how the different processing routes could affect the rice wine's properties in terms of alcohol content, pH, colour, mineral content, proximate composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, sugar, free amino acid, and organic acid profile. Sensory analysis using polarised projective mapping (PPM) and 62 participants found that sweetness is the most desirable attribute for makgeolli among New Zealand consumers with sourness and bitterness as less desirable. The 2SF makgeolli sample had the highest concentration of glucose (8.2 mg/mL) and maltose (107 mg/mL) and in the PPM experiment was the most preferred out of the four processing methods. The 1SF-N makgeolli sample had the highest alcohol (13% ABV), crude protein (4.9%), antioxidant activity, total phenolic (621 mg GAE/L) and free amino acids content, however, it was the least overall liked makgeolli sample. Overall, the novelty of this research includes formulating a traditional Korean turbid rice wine in a Western country environment and evaluating consumer perception of makgeolli beyond the normal clientele in South Korea. From these results it is suggested that the properties of makgeolli can be manipulated via processing to suit the brewer's sensory needs that best fits the consumer market.

Korean rice wine; Nuruk; Makgeolli processing; AccQ·Tag™ amino acid analysis; Methyl-chloroformate derivatisation; Polarised project mapping (PPM)
Current Research in Food Science, Volume 6, 2023, 100420.
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