Bioactive Properties of Bread Formulated with Plant-based Functional Ingredients Before Consumption and Possible Links with Health Outcomes After Consumption- A Review
Amoah, I; Cairncross, C; Osei, EO; Yeboah, JA; Cobbinah, JC; Rush, E
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Bread is a commonly consumed staple and could be a viable medium to deliver plant-based ingredients that demonstrate health effects. This review brings together published evidence on the bioactive properties of bread formulated with plant-based ingredients. Health effects associated with the consumption of bread formulated with plant-based functional ingredients was also reviewed. Bioactive properties demonstrated by the functional ingredients fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts and tea incorporated into bread include increased phenolic and polyphenolic content, increased antioxidant activity, and extension of bread shelf-life by impairment of lipid and protein oxidation. Acute health effects reported included appetite suppression, reduced diastolic blood pressure, improvements in glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety effect. These metabolic effects are mainly short lived and not enough for a health claim. Longer term studies or comparison of those who consume and those who do not are needed. The incorporation of plant-based functional ingredients in bread could enhance the health-promoting effects of bread.