The Effects of Spray Drying Conditions on the Physical and Bioactive Properties of New Zealand Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) Powder
Al Mubarak, A; Hamid, N; Kam, R; Chan, H
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This research investigates the effect of spray drying conditions on the chemical and physical characteristics of tamarillo powders encapsulated with either maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA), or a combination of both carriers. Tamarillo puree was spray dried at different inlet temperatures from 100°C to 140°C. The highest yield was at 50.60% obtained at an inlet temperature of 120°C. Colour, water activity and solubility of tamarillo powder were significantly affected by drying inlet temperature and carriers used. The scanning electron micrograph allowed to differentiate control sample, which was highly agglomerated with cracks from powders containing carriers that were spherical, smooth and with low agglomeration. The FRAP assay showed the antioxidant activity of MD-containing sample to be 49.69 mg Trolox/g sample, which was significantly higher than those with other carriers. CUPRAC assay further showed the mixture of GA and MD (2:1) containing sample to be 44.82 mg Trolox/g sample, which yielded significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to other samples.