Ultrasound Imaging Acquisition Procedures for Evaluating the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: A Scoping Review
Molyneux, P; Bowen, C; Ellis, R; Rome, K; Jackson, A; Carroll, M
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The aim of this scoping review was to investigate ultrasound imaging (USI) acquisition procedures and guidelines used to assess the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched in May 2021. Studies were included if they used grey-scale USI or power Doppler and reported a USI procedure to assess the first MTPJ. Screening and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors. The scoping review was reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR). A total of 403 citations were identified for screening, with 36 articles included in the final analysis. There was wide variation in USI acquisition procedures used to evaluate the first MTPJ. Inconsistencies in reporting may be attributable to the number of elements the USI acquisition procedure encompasses, which include the model of the USI device, the type of transducer, USI modalities and settings, patient position, transducer orientation, surfaces scanned and the scanning technique used. The review found inconsistencies against international guidelines and limited implementation of consensus-based recommendations to guide image acquisition. Current guidelines require further refinement of anatomical reference points to establish a standardised USI acquisition procedure, subsequently improving interpretability and reproducibility between USI studies that evaluate the first MTPJ.