Sensory and Physicochemical Characterization of Sourdough Bread Prepared With a Coconut Water Kefir Starter
Limbad, M; Gutierrez-Maddox, N; Hamid, N; Kantono, K
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There is a recognized need for formulating functional food products using selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures from various sources such as kefir, yoghurt or kombucha that have health benefits. The principle objective of this study was to investigate the use of a coconut water kefir-based fermentation starter culture using Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum to develop a sourdough bread. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) sensory profiling was used in this study to evaluate the sensory profile of sourdough breads that varied with culture type, culture concentrations, with and without added yeast, and with fermentation for 18 and 24 h. Based on correspondence analysis (CA) of the CATA results, bread samples with positive sensory attributes were chosen for further physicochemical analysis. Physicochemical analyses (texture, proximate composition, shelf life, carboxylic acid analysis and amino acid analysis) were carried out on breads formulated with starter culture concentrations of 8.30 log CFU/mL of L. fermentum, 4.90 log CFU/mL of L. fermentum and 9.60 log CFU/mL of L. plantarum, each fermented for 24 h without baker's yeast. The bread sample that was formulated with a coconut water kefir (CWK) starter culture containing 9.60 log CFU/mL of L. plantarum, without dry yeast and fermented for 24 h, had significantly higher values for almost all amino acids and a lower protein content compared to samples formulated using CWK cultures containing 8.30 log CFU/mL of L. fermentum and 4.90 log CFU/mL of L. fermentum, both without dry yeast and fermented for 24 h. The bread sample formulated with CWK starter culture containing 9.60 log CFU/mL of L. plantarum, without dry yeast and fermented for 24 h, also produced significant quantities of organic acids (pyruvic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and succinic acid). These changes in the physicochemical properties can improve overall bread quality in terms of flavor, shelf life, texture and nutritional value.