A Chemometrics Approach Comparing Volatile Changes During the Shelf Life of Apple Juice Processed by Pulsed Electric Fields, High Pressure and Thermal Pasteurization
High-Pressure Processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) processing technologies are being used increasingly on a commercial basis, with high-quality labelled fruit juices being one of the most important promotion strategies. Quality-related enzymes, which might still be active after HPP and PEF pasteurization, can cause undesirable aroma changes during storage. This study investigated volatile changes during the shelf life of PEF (15.5 kV/cm and specific energy of 158 kJ/L), HPP (600 MPa for 3 min), and thermally (72 °C for 15 s) pasteurized Jazz apple juices-up to five weeks. To have an increased insight into the volatile changes, an integrated instrumental (GC-MS) and data analysis (chemometrics) approach was implemented. Immediately after pasteurization, PEF processing resulted a better retention of odor-active volatiles, such as (E)-2-hexenal and hexyl acetate, whereas thermal processing lowered their amount. During refrigerated storage, these volatiles have gradually decreased in all processed juices. By the end of storage, the amount of these aroma relevant volatiles appears to still be higher in PEF and HPP pasteurized juices compared to their conventional counterparts. This study demonstrated the potential of advanced chemometric approaches to obtain increased insight into complex shelf life changes.