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dc.contributor.authorJochumsen, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorNavid, MSen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorNedergaard, RWen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorSignal, Nen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorRashid, Uen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHassan, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHaavik, Hen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Den_NZ
dc.contributor.authorNiazi, IKen_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-30T23:43:32Z
dc.date.available2019-10-30T23:43:32Z
dc.date.copyright2019en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationBrain Sciences, 9(6), 127. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9060127
dc.identifier.issn2076-3425en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/12946
dc.description.abstractBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs), operated in a cue-based (offline) or self-paced (online) mode, can be used for inducing cortical plasticity for stroke rehabilitation by the pairing of movement-related brain activity with peripheral electrical stimulation. The aim of this study was to compare the difference in cortical plasticity induced by the two BCI modes. Fifteen healthy participants participated in two experimental sessions: cue-based BCI and self-paced BCI. In both sessions, imagined dorsiflexions were extracted from continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) and paired 50 times with the electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve. Before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after each intervention, the cortical excitability was measured through the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of tibialis anterior elicited through transcranial magnetic stimulation. Linear mixed regression models showed that the MEP amplitudes increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre- to post- and 30-minutes post-intervention in terms of both the absolute and relative units, regardless of the intervention type. Compared to pre-interventions, the absolute MEP size increased by 79% in post- and 68% in 30-minutes post-intervention in the self-paced mode (with a true positive rate of ~75%), and by 37% in post- and 55% in 30-minutes post-intervention in the cue-based mode. The two modes were significantly different (p = 0.03) at post-intervention (relative units) but were similar at both post timepoints (absolute units). These findings suggest that immediate changes in cortical excitability may have implications for stroke rehabilitation, where it could be used as a priming protocol in conjunction with another intervention; however, the findings need to be validated in studies involving stroke patients.en_NZ
dc.languageengen_NZ
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttps://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/6/127
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.subjectEEGen_NZ
dc.subjectBrain–computer interfaceen_NZ
dc.subjectCortical excitabilityen_NZ
dc.subjectMovement-related cortical potentialsen_NZ
dc.subjectNeural plasticityen_NZ
dc.titleSelf-paced Online Vs. Cue-based Offline Brain-computer Interfaces for Inducing Neural Plasticityen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/brainsci9060127en_NZ
aut.relation.issue6en_NZ
aut.relation.volume9en_NZ
pubs.elements-id360266
aut.relation.journalBrain Sciencesen_NZ


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