Enhancing Green Star Certification by Improving Bim Uptake Through System Dynamics Modelling
The construction industry has been criticised for its undesirable characteristics and its negative impacts on the environment. In New Zealand, low construction productivity and high levels of construction and demolition waste have been pressing concerns. BIM and Green Star uptake could mitigate these problems. However, they are still in their early stages in New Zealand. Understanding insights into BIM and Green Star is necessary for successful BIM and Green Star development. This research examines the characteristics of BIM and Green Star in New Zealand. It aims to provide a platform to enhance Green Star certification uptake by improving BIM uptake. Interviews were conducted with construction experts concerning BIM adoption. Construction productivity or efficiency and sustainability improvement were highlighted as possible benefits of using BIM. A lack of understanding was suggested as the most significant challenge preventing BIM implementation. Providing education/training was suggested as a solution. Green Star characteristics and its relationship with BIM were investigated through the mixed methods approach. Implementing Green Star offers benefits to the environment. However, the lack of understanding, cost perception, lack of benchmark projects, and complex administration of Green Star have deterred Green Star users. Similar to BIM, providing education is critical to address those challenges. A questionnaire survey confirmed that integrating BIM with Green Star is a practical solution. However, the low level of BIM development was perceived as one of the serious challenges and executing BIM correctly could solve those challenges. A BIM adoption framework was developed to improve understanding and adoption. 7 main categories and 39 indicators affecting BIM adoption were determined from the data and three well-known Business Excellence Models (BEMs). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was adopted for validation and to measure the impacts of each category on each other. Leadership, Clients & Other Stakeholders, Strategic Planning, Resources, People, Process, and Results are the main categories of the framework. A BIM-Green Star system dynamics (SD) model was developed and validated to provide insights into BIM and Green Star. The results indicate that it takes 8 years for an organisation in New Zealand to achieve BIM level 3 from BIM level 0 and 5 years to reach BIM level 2. It also reveals that an organisation would take 9 years to integrate BIM with Green Star appropriately. Different strategies towards BIM adoption along with the integration of BIM and Green Star were tested. Leadership was identified as the most significant category and could help organisations achieve BIM level 3 quicker. The research provides insights into the characteristics of BIM and Green Star, confirms the challenges, and provides solutions for BIM and Green Star development. Also, a set of categories and indicators to assess the BIM practice was provided. The government, local authorities, and construction organisations could use the results as guidelines to improve their BIM and Green Star practice. They can adapt the developed SD model to test the effectiveness of their strategies towards BIM and Green Star over time; the positive direction for BIM and Green Star development can be achieved.