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dc.contributor.authorDuncan, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Ten_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMcPhee, Jen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBorotkanics, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorPrendergast, Ken_NZ
dc.contributor.authorZinn, Cen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMeredith-Jones, Ken_NZ
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMcLachlan, Cen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorSchofield, Gen_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-09T23:32:42Z
dc.date.available2019-09-09T23:32:42Z
dc.date.copyright2019-12en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activityvolume 16, Article number: 80 (2019)
dc.identifier.issn1479-5868en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/12804
dc.description.abstractBackground Most physical activity interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, children typically engage in more sedentary activities and spend more time eating when at home. The primary aim of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a compulsory, health-related homework programme on physical activity, dietary patterns, and body size in primary school-aged children. Methods A total of 675 children aged 7–10 years from 16 New Zealand primary schools participated in the Healthy Homework study. Schools were randomised into intervention and control groups (1:1 allocation). Intervention schools implemented an 8-week applied homework and in-class teaching module designed to increase physical activity and improve dietary patterns. Physical activity was the primary outcome measure, and was assessed using two sealed pedometers that monitored school- and home-based activity separately. Secondary outcome measures included screen-based sedentary time and selected dietary patterns assessed via parental proxy questionnaire. In addition, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). All measurements were taken at baseline (T0), immediately post-intervention (T1), and 6-months post-intervention (T2). Changes in outcome measures over time were estimated using generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs) that adjusted for fixed (group, age, sex, group x time) and random (subjects nested within schools) effects. Intervention effects were also quantified using GLMMs adjusted for baseline values. Results Significant intervention effects were observed for weekday physical activity at home (T1 [P < 0.001] and T2 [P = 0.019]), weekend physical activity (T1 [P < 0.001] and T2 [P < 0.001]), BMI (T2 only [P = 0.020]) and fruit consumption (T1 only [P = 0.036]). Additional analyses revealed that the greatest improvements in physical activity occurred in children from the most socioeconomically deprived schools. No consistent effects on sedentary time, WHtR, or other dietary patterns were observed. Conclusions A compulsory health-related homework programme resulted in substantial and consistent increases in children’s physical activity – particularly outside of school and on weekends – with limited effects on body size and fruit consumption. Overall, our findings support the integration of compulsory home-focused strategies for improving health behaviours into primary education curricula.
dc.languageenen_NZ
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttps://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12966-019-0840-3
dc.rightsThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.subjectChild health; Intervention; Education; Curriculum; Pedometers; Dietary assessment; Body size; Child obesity
dc.titleEfficacy of a Compulsory Homework Programme for Increasing Physical Activity and Improving Nutrition in Children: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trialen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12966-019-0840-3en_NZ
aut.relation.articlenumber80en_NZ
aut.relation.issue1en_NZ
aut.relation.volume16en_NZ
pubs.elements-id363611
aut.relation.journalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activityen_NZ


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