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dc.identifier.citationPain Practice, 15(2), 117-123.
dc.description.abstractTo determine whether manipulation of the expectation of pain inhibition can enhance the efficacy of conditioned pain modulation in healthy participants Methods: A conditioned pain modulation paradigm was used to investigate the effect of psychological manipulation of expectation on pain inhibition. In 19 healthy men, the lower limb nociceptive flexion reflex was elicited in isolation (test stimulus) and during application of 2 forms of conditioning stimuli. Following application of the first conditioning stimulus (CS1), the participants were informed that the subsequent conditioning stimulus (CS2) would elicit a greater amount of inhibition of test pain compared with the first. Lower limb flexion reflex size, perceived pain ratings of the test stimulus, and ratings of expected pain modulation were obtained for both test and conditioning protocols. Results: The inhibition of perceived pain was significantly greater with CS2 compared with CS1; however, there was no significant difference in inhibition of nociceptive flexion reflex size or the participant's reported expectation of pain modulation between the 2 conditioning stimuli. Discussion: As perceived pain inhibition was enhanced but flexion reflex size unchanged following the intervention, we suggest that the intervention gave rise to an inhibition of ascending nociceptive information at a supraspinal level resulting in reduced pain perception without influencing spinal level processing of nociceptive input. The finding that conditioned pain modulation can be enhanced is of relevance to clinical pain populations who commonly show impaired inhibition.en_NZ
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Authors retain the right to place his/her pre-publication version of the work on a personal website or institutional repository. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in (please see citation) as it is not a copy of this record. An electronic version of this article can be found online at: (Please see Publisher’s Version).
dc.subjectConditioned pain modulation; Expectation; Flexion reflex; Psychology
dc.titleSubconscious Manipulation of Pain Expectation Can Modulate Cortical Nociceptive Processingen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dark.contributor.authorLewis, GNen_NZ
dark.contributor.authorLeys, Aen_NZ
dark.contributor.authorRice, DAen_NZ
dark.contributor.authorMcNair, PJen_NZ
aut.relation.journalPain Practiceen_NZ

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