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dc.contributor.authorKersten, Pen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorVandal, ACen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorElder, Hen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMcPherson, KMen_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-10T23:22:08Z
dc.date.available2018-09-10T23:22:08Z
dc.date.copyright2018-04-21en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationBMJ Open 2018;8:e021551. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021551
dc.identifier.issn2044-6055en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/11800
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVES: This observational study examines the internal construct validity, internal consistency and cross-informant reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a New Zealand preschool population across four ethnicity strata (New Zealand European, Māori, Pasifika, Asian). DESIGN: Rasch analysis was employed to examine internal validity on a subsample of 1000 children. Internal consistency (n=29 075) and cross-informant reliability (n=17 006) were examined using correlations, intraclass correlation coefficients and Cronbach's alpha on the sample available for such analyses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were used from a national SDQ database provided by the funder, pertaining to New Zealand domiciled children aged 4 and 5 and scored by their parents and teachers. RESULTS: The five subscales do not fit the Rasch model (as indicated by the overall fit statistics), contain items that are biased (differential item functioning (DIF)) by key variables, suffer from a floor and ceiling effect and have unacceptable internal consistency. After dealing with DIF, the Total Difficulty scale does fit the Rasch model and has good internal consistency. Parent/teacher inter-rater reliability was unacceptably low for all subscales. CONCLUSION: The five SDQ subscales are not valid and not suitable for use in their own right in New Zealand. We have provided a conversion table for the Total Difficulty scale, which takes account of bias by ethnic group. Clinicians should use this conversion table in order to reconcile DIF by culture in final scores. It is advisable to use both parents and teachers' feedback when considering children's needs for referral of further assessment. Future work should examine whether validity is impacted by different language versions used in the same country.en_NZ
dc.languageengen_NZ
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
dc.relation.urihttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/4/e021551
dc.rights© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
dc.subjectPre-schoolen_NZ
dc.subjectRaschen_NZ
dc.subjectReliabilityen_NZ
dc.subjectStrengths and difficulties questionnaireen_NZ
dc.subjectValidityen_NZ
dc.titleStrengths and difficulties questionnaire: Internal validity and reliability for New Zealand preschoolersen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021551en_NZ
aut.relation.issue4en_NZ
aut.relation.startpagee021551
aut.relation.volume8en_NZ
pubs.elements-id336048
aut.relation.journalBMJ Openen_NZ


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